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Title: A frozen blood bank
Author: Ali Amer, Kamal Abdel-Monem
Awarding Body: University of Edinburgh
Current Institution: University of Edinburgh
Date of Award: 1976
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Utilizing the principle of low-glycerol rapid freeze-thaw technique of red cell preservation, a frozen blood bank has been established in the Edinburgh Blood Transfusion Service. A new aluminium container for freezing was developed that enabled maximum packing in a limited space. Deglycerolization is accomplished by serial centrifugal batch washing either manually or automatically in the IBM 2991 Cell Processor. A comparative study between both methods showed several advantages of the latter technique. The post-thaw stability of frozen deglycerolized blood as measured by supernatant haemoglobin (Hb) and potassium (K+) is markedly improved when the washed erythrocytes are reconstituted in an equal volume of a medium made up from isotonic saline and 70 ml of acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD) solution. The rate of release of Hb was reduced four fold and that of KK two fold when compared to resuspension in isotonic saline alone. This effect of ACD was attributed to the combined action of both low pH and citrate ion. Bacteriological studies on blood processed in the IBM 2991 and reconstitutedin saline-ACD medium showed that this blood was sterile for at least ten days of post-thaw storage at 4°C. During this period the blood had acceptable levels of extracellular free Rb and K+ whilst the intracellular e. 2,3 DPC and ATP were still satisfactory after five days. In vivo viability of the cells was not affected during the period of post-thaw storage at 4°C. We have measured the leucocyte and platelet derived material in frozen blood by four different methods; 1) by direct visual or Coulter counting 5-6% of the original leucocytes remained. 2) by 125 labelling of the cell membrane approximately one third of the labelled leucocyte material and 2% of the platelet material was recovered in the packed cells. However most of the remaining material could be removed either by using a microporous filter or by removing the buffy coat automatically during processing in the IBM 2991. 3) Isolated residual lymphocytes were found to be non-viable by the dye exclusion technique whilst a low response to PHA stimulation was detected in lymphocyte culture. However, these cells were unable to stimulate responding cells ir, ho ILO. 4) In;.ion of rabbits showed that cytotoxic titres decreased in the series fresh blood frozen blood frozen filtered blood. Clinical experience with more than one thousand units transfused to medical cases showed the efficacy of this blood in restoring the Fib deficit to normal and in preventing the febrile transfusion reactions which would otherwise occur with fresh blood transfusions.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available