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Title: Optimum community energy storage for end user applications
Author: Parra Mendoza, David
ISNI:       0000 0004 5366 0109
Awarding Body: University of Nottingham
Current Institution: University of Nottingham
Date of Award: 2014
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The UK government determined that 30% of the total electricity and 15% of the total energy should be generated from renewable sources by 2020 according to the Low Carbon Transition Plan. However, most renewable energy technologies are intermittent because they depend on weather conditions and they do not offer matching capability. Energy storage is attracting intensive attention as a technology which converts renewable energy technologies into a dispatchable product which meets variable demand loads. There is increasing interest for energy storage located very close to consumers which is able to augment the amount of local renewable generation consumed on site, provides demand side flexibility and helps to decarbonise the heating sector. This thesis optimises community energy storage (CES) for end user applications including battery, hydrogen and thermal storage performing PV energy time-shift, load shifting and the combination of them. The optimisation method obtains the economic benefits of CES by quantifying the levelised cost, levelised value and internal rate of return. The method follows a community approach and the optimum CES system was calculated as a function of the size of the community, from a single home to a 100-home community. A complimentary methodology was developed including three reference years (2012, 2020 and zero carbon year) to show the evolution of the economic benefits during the low carbon transition. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis including the key parameters which affect the performance and the economic benefits was developed. The community approach reduced the levelised cost down to 0.30 £/kWh and 0.14 £/kWh for PV energy time shift and load shifting respectively when projected to the year 2020. These values meant a cost reduction by 37% and 55% regarding a single home. A cost of the storage medium of 275 £/kWh for Li-ion batteries (equivalent to a 10% subsidy over the assumed cost, 310 £/kWh) is the break-even point for Li-ion batteries by 2020 for an electricity price equal to 16.3 p/kWh (R^2=0.6). Secondly, this thesis presents a new community hydrogen storage system integrated in a low carbon community and the experimental results when performing PV energy time-shift, load shifting and the combination of them. Long term ES was demonstrated when the community storage hydrogen system performed load shifting and the capacity factor of the electrolyser increased by 116% when PV energy time-shift was performed in addition to load shifting. This system was designed in collaboration with industrial partners and the key findings obtained during the construction and testing phases are shared.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: TJ Mechanical engineering and machinery