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Title: Cultivation trends in the buffer zones of East African rangeland protected areas : the case of Ngorongoro and Loliondo in Tanzania
Author: Kivelia, J.
Awarding Body: University of London
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2007
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This study examined socio-economic factors that drive the conversion of the rangelands into cultivation in a context of rangelands managed under conservation and development land use policies. Specifically, it compared the extent and factors of rangeland conversion to cultivation between and within land-use zones managed under conservation-biased policies and those managed under development-biased policies. The study was conducted in Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) and Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) buffer zones of the Serengeti National Park (SNP), chosen on the basis of generally comparable ecological, socio-economic and cultural backgrounds, but different land-use policies. NCA pursue conservation compatible policies whereas LGCA pursue land-use policies that allow for almost all sorts of land-uses. The results show interesting variations in the level of households' involvement in cultivation and the magnitude of rangeland conversion that reflect the varied influence of conservation and development policies. NCA had more households that were cultivating (96%) compared to LGCA (87%). However, there was more land converted to farmlands in the LGCA (4.02 acres per household), as opposed to the NCA (2.36 acres per household). Conservation policies, particularly the controls over cultivation, in-migration, and management of the range resources in the NCA account for the low levels of rangeland conversion in the NCA. All the NCA sample households (100%) wanted to cultivate, and majority would increase the size of their farms if not for the controls on tools to be used. In the contrary, development-biased policies which do not regulate in-migration and land-use were encouraging rather than limiting conversion of the rangelands. In the LGCA, the only limitation was ecological conditions in some of the sites. In-migrant cultivators and the use of tractors and ploughs were allowed, and extension services for the development of cultivated crop were available. Households of different socio-economic and occupational backgrounds - pastoralists and non-pastoralists, residents and in-migrants, the poor and the rich - were all cultivating, but with a generally low acreage compared to cultivator communities outside the buffer zones. Wealthier pastoralists and the few settled pensioners however, owned and cultivated larger farms in both zones. In all these sub-groups, cultivation was contributing significantly to subsistence needs and herd-building. Despite the increasing cultivation, land cover change associated with human activities between 1975 and 2000 was very small compared to other buffer areas in the east African rangelands protected areas. This suggests that the current levels of cultivation in the study area can be maintained without much threat to the purposes for which the buffer zones are created. It was therefore concluded that the buffer zones ought to be managed under policies that regulate in-migration and land-use, foster growth in the livestock economy, and, allow small-scale cultivation among pastoralists.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available