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Title: In vivo determination of copper and iron using neutron activation analysis
Author: Sandhu, S. H. K.
Awarding Body: University College of Swansea
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 1994
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The adaptation of two clinical instruments for the in vivo measurement of hepatic levels of copper and iron using neutron activation is described. The neutron activation instrument is based on a 4 GBq 252Cf neutron source which can deliver different intensities and dose-rates, while the whole body counting facility, located in the adjacent laboratory, comprises of four NaI(Tl) crystals heavily shielded by lead. Due to the close proximity of the two instruments, during a neutron irradiation procedure, the background counts in the detectors in the next room are raised primarily because of iodine activation. Trials of various neutron shielding material have shown that one of the most effective and easily incorporated shields is cadmium placed all around the crystals. The feasibility of measuring the extent of liver copper burden has been established via two different thermal neutron capture reactions employing conventional and cyclic activation. The detection limits (2 standard deviations of the net peak counts) obtained for hepatic copper are 160mg and 200mg for an incident dose equivalent of 30mSv and 39mSv, for the conventional and cyclic methods respectively. Repeated irradiations of liver phantoms containing iron solution have shown that using the delayed, fast neutron reaction, iron can be measured with a reproducibility of 7.3% for a radiation dose equivalent of 36mSv. This relates to a detection limit of 1.2g iron for the liver. The two instruments have been calibrated for the in vivo measurement of copper and iron, and the potential for measurements of chlorine, manganese and magnesium highlighted.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available