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Title: Cravings for cigarettes and cognitive performance in regular and occasional smokers
Author: Davies, G. M.
Awarding Body: University of Wales Swansea
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 2001
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The primary aim of this thesis was to investigate the reliability and validity of a multi-dimensional subjective measure of cravings for cigarettes - the Questionnaire of Smoking Urges (QSU- Tiffany & Drobes, 1991) in cigarette smokers. Another aim was to investigate the sensitivity and utility of objective, behavioural measures of the urge to smoke. Finally, an attempt was made to resolve the controversy as to whether the reported cognitive-enhancing effect of nicotine (e.g. Wesnes & Warburton, 1983) is a pharmacological effect or is instead merely the result of relief from withdrawal. A series of laboratory studies were conducted. Abstinence periods, smoking-related cues, and in one study, pre-treatment with placebo or nicotine gum, were manipulated as independent variables. Two participant groups were used. Participants used in the first four experimental chapters were all regular smokers whereas those used in the final two experimental chapters were all occasional, non-dependent, smokers or tobacco "chippers". Evidence was found for both the reliability and the validity of the QSU. The QSU was shown to be sensitive to both periods of abstinence and exposure to smoking-related cues. In addition, the QSU was shown to have a reliable two-factor structure and that these two factors were measuring different aspects of cigarette craving. The PR was demonstrated to be unreliable subjective measure of craving, and attempts to use two alternative measures were unsuccessful. Further, no evidence was found for the cognitive-enhancing effects of nicotine in chippers. The results support the multi-dimensional view of craving, and suggest that the multi-dimensional QSU is a valid and reliable measure of cravings for cigarettes.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available