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Title: Neutron activation analysis for the in vivo determination of renal cadmium
Author: Cummins, P. E.
Awarding Body: University College of Swansea
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 1980
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This thesis describes the construction, development and clinical use of a mobile neutron activation analysis facility which was designed specifically to measure, in-vivo, renal cadmium levels in environmentally exposed populations. The experimental method involved irradiating the left kidney with a collimated beam of neutrons from a radioisotopic neutron source and measuring on-line, from outside the body, the chaxacteristic 559 keV capture gvmma-rays from TT3Cd, using a high efficiency Ge(Li) detector. The irradiation facility was based on a 200µg (4.6xI08ns-I) californium-252 neutron source, which was housed in a cylindrical steel vessel, 90 cm high and 90 cm in diameter, containing borated paraffin wax. The combined activation and detection response of the system was dependent on kidney size and position and these were determined prior to the neutron irradiation using ultrasonography. The apparatus could detect (2S.D.s of the background), 3.2 mg of cadmium in the left kidney for an organ dose of 0.3 rem (skin dose e 0.8 rem), which was delivered in 33 minutes. The apparatus has been used to measure renal cadmium burdens in a group of 30 hypertensive patients undergoing treatment and in a group of 30 carefully matched controls, both groups being volunteers selected at random from a non-occupationally exposed population. The aim of this clinical study was to investigate the possible involvement of cadmium in the aetiology of hypertension at the chronic low levels of environmental exposure. The results showed that the mean cadmium level in the hypertensive croup, 3.3± 2.3mg(tI S.D.), was not significantly different from that in the normotensive group, 4.4t2.7 mg. Therefore, this work does not implicate environmental cadmium exposure as a risk factor in hypertensive disease.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available