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Title: An evaluation of alternative sources for in vivo X-ray fluorescence
Author: Al-Sadhan, F. A. O.
Awarding Body: University College of Swansea
Current Institution: Swansea University
Date of Award: 1991
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This thesis describes the application of X-ray fluorescence to the detection of heavy metals in the body. Platinum is a heavy metal of importance in medicine, particularly in oncology, in the form of anti-cancer drugs. These are used against several human tumours including neck and head, ovarian cervical and testicular cancer. Even though successfully and widely used, platinum has undesirable toxic side effects including nephrotoxocity, nausea, vomiting and neurotoxicity. Information about the concentration of the drug in the tumour could be of use in establishing dose-response relationships and in adjusting a patient's subsequent doses of the drug to achieve maximum therapeutic effect. A system for the in vivo measurement of platinum in patients treated with chemotherapy has been developed, based on a Tc-99m annular source in back-scattering geometry. The collimator to skin distance was determined for optimum dosimetry and detection limit, and the effect of overlying tissue and tumour volume measured. The dosimetry, detection limit, performance, availability and cost were compared with those of a system based on a Co-57 'point' source in 90°-scattering geometry. The amount of adsorbed dose to the patient was predicted using a mathematical model (Target) and the results showed good agreement with both a newly-written BASIC program and values measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry. Two computer programs were tested and used for the analysis of the spectra obtained from the patients. Fifteen measurements of platinum in head and neck tumours were performed in seven patients. The results showed that the new system has several advantages compared with the previous one.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available