Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.635526
Title: Identification of novel biomarkers for clinical prognosis in breast cancer
Author: Ohotski, Jan
ISNI:       0000 0004 5357 0269
Awarding Body: University of Strathclyde
Current Institution: University of Strathclyde
Date of Award: 2014
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Abstract:
Sphingosine kinase/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SK/S1P) signalling interacts with major cellular pathways controlling cell proliferation, migration, survival, and resistance to chemotherapeutics. Moreover, extensive research has shown that the SK/S1P signalling is up-regulated in numerous human cancers (e.g. stomach cancer, colon, rectal, glioblastoma, ovarian, renal, lung and breast) making S1P signalling an important candidate as a biomarker and a key player in promoting cancer progression. Several inhibitors of SK/S1P signalling pathway have been identified and have shown to inhibit cancer cell survival and resistance to chemo- and radio-therapies. In this study, human breast cancer tissue microarrays at various tissue histological grades of ERα negative breast tumours were analysed for the expression of S1P signalling proteins (e.g. SKs and S1P₁₋₅ receptors) to identify the impact of expression level of these proteins on clinical outcomes. High SK1 and S1P₄ receptor tumour expression is associated with poor cancer prognosis in ERα negative breast cancer patients. Moreover, high SK1 and S1P₄ receptor expression in these tumours was also associated with cancer recurrence and this was dependent on the HER2 receptor expression. Indeed, the SK1/2 dual inhibitor SKi (2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl)thiazole) abrogated the S1Pstimulated ERK-1/2 activation in ERα-/HER2+ MDA-MB-453 cells suggesting that SK1 activity is required for the S1P₄/HER2-mediated ERK-1/2 activation that is known to promote cancer progression. In addition, a diverse array of kinases and transcription factors e.g. c-RAF-1, ERK-1/2, AKT, LYN, SRC family kinases (SFKs) and NFκB (p50 RelA) were analysed in combination with SK1 and S1P receptors to discover novel prognostic interactions that drive cancer progression in ERα positive breast cancer patients. High tumour SK1 expression in combination with high expression of either S1P₁ receptor or S1P₃ receptor or phosphorylated ERK-1/2 or phosphorylated AKT or phosphorylated NFκB or phosphorylated RAF-1 or Y416 phosphorylated SFK or LYN is associated with shorter disease-specific patient survival and disease-free cancer recurrence. Similarly, high S1P₁ receptor tumour expression in combination with high expression of either Y216 phosphorylated SRC or c-RAF-1 or ERK-1/2 or AKT kinase is associated with shorter disease-specific patient survival and disease-free cancer recurrence. High S1P₂ receptor tumour expression is associated with prolonged patient survival and this is enhanced in combination with high expression of c-SRC and Y416 phosphorylated SFK in ERα positive breast cancer tumours. Finally, high tumour S1P3 receptor expression in combination with high expression of LYN or c-RAF-1 kinases is associated with shorter disease-specific patient survival and disease-free cancer recurrence. Lastly, a new signalling pathway involving SK2, Y416 phosphorylated c-SRC, S1P₄ receptor and S1P₂ receptor was identified using pharmacological agents/gene silencing in ERα negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In this pathway, SK2 possibly through 'inside out' S1P signalling activates the S1P₄ receptor that promotes cellular growth by preventing the nuclear accumulation of S1P₂ receptor. Moreover, SK2 activity also prevents the accumulation of Y416 phosphorylated c-SRC into the nucleus that might be crucial for tumour growth. Thus, this study shows that the high tumour expression of S1P signalling proteins is associated with poor disease prognosis in both ERα positive and ERα negative breast cancer patients. However, cancer progression is mediated by distinct set of S1P signalling proteins in different types of breast cancer. Hence, different treatment regiments including SK inhibitors and S1P receptor antagonist must be employed in treatment of ERα positive and ERα negative breast cancer patients.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.635526  DOI: Not available
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