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Title: Two-component Bose-Einstein condensates : equilibria and dynamics at zero temperature and beyond
Author: Pattinson, Robert William
ISNI:       0000 0004 5353 8381
Awarding Body: University of Newcastle Upon Tyne
Current Institution: University of Newcastle upon Tyne
Date of Award: 2014
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In this Thesis we study steady state solutions and dynamical evolutions of two– component atomic Bose–Einstein Condensates. We initially investigate the equilibrium properties of condensate mixtures in harmonic trapping potentials at zero temperature. Subsequently we simulate the coupled growth of these condensates by inclusion of damping terms. Finally, we investigate the evolution of coupled Bose gases via the so-called classical–field method. A recent experiment [D. J. McCarron et al., Phys. Rev. A, 84, 011603(R) (2011)] achieved Bose–Einstein Condensation of a two–species 87Rb–133Cs phase segregated mixture in harmonic trapping potentials. Depending on relative atom numbers of the two species, three distinct regimes of density distributions were observed. For these experimental parameters, we investigate the corresponding time–independent ground state solutions through numerical simulations of the coupled Gross–Pitaevskii equations. By including experimentally relevant shifts between the traps, we observe a range of structures including ‘ball and shell’ formations and axially/radially separated states. These are found to be very sensitive to the trap shifts. For all three experimental regimes, our numerical simulations reveal good qualitative agreement. The observed experimental profiles cannot be guaranteed to be fully equilibrated. This, coupled with the rapid sympathetic cooling of the experimental system, leads to a situation where growth may play a determining factor in the density structures formed. To investigate this further, we introduce phenomenological damping to describe the associated condensate growth/decay, revealing a range of transient structures. However, such a model always predicts the predominance of one condensate species over longer evolution times. Work undertaken by collaborators with the more elaborate Stochastic Projected Gross–Pitaevskii equations, which can describe condensate formation by coupling to a heat bath, predicts the spontaneous formation of dark–bright solitons. Motivated by this, we show how the presence of solitons can affect the condensate distribution, thus highlighting the overall dynamical role in the emerging patterns. Finally, we use classical field methods to analyse the evolution of non trapped Bose gases from strongly nonequilibrium initial distributions. The contrast between miscible (overlapping) and immiscible (phase segregated) components gives rise to important distinctions for condensate fractions and the formation of domains and vortices. In addition, splitting the particles of a single component thermalised state into two components is investigated. We then study the effects of suddenly quenching the strength of the interspecies interactions. Under suitable conditions, this quench generates isotropic vortex tangles. While this tangle subsequently decays over time, we propose how a repeat sequence of quenches at regular intervals could be employed to drive the tangle, thereby potentially providing a novel route to the generation of quantum turbulence.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available