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Title: Grid synchronisation of VSC-HVDC system
Author: Gao, Siyu
ISNI:       0000 0004 5353 206X
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2015
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This thesis investigates issues affecting grid synchronisation of VSC-HVDC systems with particular regard to, but not limited to, offshore wind power generation during the complex but potentially serious behaviours following solar storms. An averaged value model (AVM) for the contemporary modular multilevel converter (MMC) based VSC-HVDC system is developed and is used in combination with different phase-locked loop (PLL) models and the unified magnetic equivalent circuit (UMEC) transformer model to assess the impacts of geomagnetically induced current (GIC) on grid synchronisation of an offshore VSC-HVDC system. GIC is DC current flowing in the earth caused by strong geomagnetic disturbance events. GIC enters the electric utility grid via the grounded transformer neutral and can cause severe saturation to transformers. This in turn causes disruptions to grid synchronisation. The main contribution of this thesis is that effects of GIC are studied using the UMEC transformer model, which can model saturation. The assessment leads to the development of enhanced fundamental positive sequence control (EFPSC) which is capable of reducing the stress on the system during GIC events. The methods developed can also be applied to other non-symmetrical AC events occurring in VSC-HVDC such as single-phase faults. Additional contributions of the thesis are:A mathematical model of the MMC is derived and forms the foundation of the AVM. The AVM is verified against a detailed equivalent-circuit-based model and shows good accuracy. The PLL is the essential component for grid synchronisation of VSC-HVDC system. Different PLLs are studied in detail. Their performance is compared both qualitatively and quantitatively. This appears to have been done for the first time systematically in the public literature. The UMEC model is verified using hand calculation. Its saturation characteristic is matched to a predefined B-H curve and is also verified. The verifications show that this model is capable of modelling transformer saturation and thus is suitable for this study. The consolidation of the AVM, PLL, UMEC, GIC and EFPSC provides an insight into the how the MMC based VSC-HVDC system behaves under severe geomagnetic disturbances and the possible methods to mitigate the risks and impacts to the power grid.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: VSC, HVDC, Power System, Power Electronic, Phase-Locked Loop, PLL, MMC, Converter, Control, Modelling