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Title: Ammonia borane composites for solid state hydrogen storage and calcium-ammonia solutions in graphite
Author: Nathanson, A. S.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5351 8620
Awarding Body: University College London (University of London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2014
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The dual problems of worlds growing population, increasing energy demand and global warming, necessitate an alternative to fossil fuels. Hydrogen is plentiful and has a high energy density but storage in high pressure tanks is complex and presents safety concerns. Ammonia borane (AB) is one of the most promising solid state hydrogen storage materials due to its high releasable hydrogen content (13.1 wt%), stability in air, and low toxicity. On heating, however, pure AB releases hydrogen only after long nucleation times and is accompanied by the liberation of gaseous impurities including borazine and ammonia; additionally, extensive material expansion and foaming occurs. AB composites with polyethylene oxide, polystyrene and imogolite have been synthesized. It is concluded that the decomposition of AB is best ameliorated by providing access to functional groups that catalyse alternative dehydrogenation routes. Lowering the onset of hydrogen loss to below the melting temperature limits the overall foam and expansion. The two dimensional confined motion of liquid ammonia in a multi staged ternary calcium ammonia graphite intercalation compound was studied with respect to temperature. Hopping diffusion at 300K gives way to rotation below 100K. The dynamics of this confined calcium ammonia solution are observed as similar to the three dimensional counterpart.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available