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Title: Investigations into the health effects of air pollution and crime using spatio-temporal data
Author: Janke, Katharina
ISNI:       0000 0004 5346 284X
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 2014
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This dissertation investigates the impact of aspects of the local environment on health. The empirical work relies on data at local authority level- the primary unit of local government in the UK - measured over years, quarters or days. These spatio-temporal data provide an identification strategy that controls for unobserved local area effects, time trends and a number of potential time-varying confounders. Chapter 1 (with Carol Propper and John Henderson) examines the relationship between air pollution and population mortality in England. Using annual data at local authority level for 1998 to 2005 that allow us to control for unobserved time-invariant heterogeneity and common time trends, we find that currently permitted levels of particulate matter less than 10 um in diameter and ozone are associated with population mortality. Chapter 2 investigates the effect of air pollution on hospital emergency admissions for respiratory diseases in children. Avoidance behaviour could potentially bias estimates of the health effects of pollutants. Daily data at local authority level from 2003 to 2007 allow me to control for local authority-year-quarter effects and national year-week effects as well as avoidance behaviour in response to air pollution alerts. Both nitrogen dioxide and ozone at the relatively low levels experienced in England lead to respiratory hospital admissions in children. Avoidance behaviour depends on its costs as parents and children seem to respond to air pollution alerts only if the costs are low. Chapter 3 presents a model of the effects of crime on physical activity. Chapter 4 (with Carol Prop per and Michael A. Shields) investigates the empirical relationship between violent crime and physical activity using a sample of nearly 1 million people surveyed between 2005 and 2011 matched to quarterly police recorded crime data at local authority level. Controlling for local authority effects, local authority specific time trends and national time effects, we find a substantive deterrent effect of crime on walking.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available