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Title: Observations of the origin and distribution of primary and secondary ice in clouds
Author: Lloyd, Gary James
ISNI:       0000 0004 5359 851X
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2014
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A detailed understanding of cloud microphysical processes is crucial for a large range of scientific disciplines that require knowledge of cloud particles for accurate climate and weather prediction. This thesis focuses on 3 measurement campaigns, encompassing both airborne and ground based measurements of the microphysical structures observed in cold, warm and occluded frontal systems around the United Kingdom, stratocumulus clouds in the Arctic and many different clouds observed over a 6 week period at a high-alpine site in the Swiss Alps. Particular attention was paid to the origin and distribution of both primary and secondary ice and the dominant features associated with ice phase processes. During investigation of cold, warm and occluded frontal systems associated with mid-latitude cyclones around the U.K., secondary ice was often found to dominate the number and mass concentrations of ice particles in all systems. The presence of large liquid droplets was sometimes observed in close proximity to regions of secondary ice production. The existence of these provides a possible mechanism by which rime-splintering is greatly enhanced through the creation of instant rimers as the large drops freeze. In-situ measurements during the cold frontal case were used to calculate rates of diabatic heating during a comparison between bin-resolved and bulk microphysics schemes. Observations in arctic stratocumulus clouds during spring and summer seasons revealed higher ice concentrations in the summer cases when compared to the spring season. This is attributed to secondary ice production actively enhancing ice concentrations in the summer, due to the higher temperature range the clouds spanned. At Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps, ground based measurements allowed us to obtain high spatial scale resolution measurements of cloud microphysics and we found transitions between high and low ice mass fractions that took place on differing temporal scales spanning seconds to hours. During the campaign measurements of aerosol properties at an out of cloud site, Schilthorn, were made. When analysing a Saharan Dust Event that took place a possible link between the number of U.V. fluorescent particles and the number of ice particles was found in the temperature range around -10 ºC.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: NERC
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Ice, Secondary, Primary, Clouds, Microphysics, Cold, Warm, Occluded, Frontal, Fronts, Arctic, Stratocumulus, Hallett-Mossop, Alpine, Extratropical, Liquid, Droplets, Precipitation