Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Regulating competitive balance in sport
Author: Kashani, O.
Awarding Body: Nottingham Trent University
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 2012
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Sport is an integral part of popular culture, capturing the hearts and minds of millions of people from every section of society 1. Maintaining competitive balance in sport is essential in preserving its long term survival. A higher uncertainty of outcome in contests is likely to result in greater spectator demand and increased revenues; whereas an imbalanced competition will eventually lead to a decline in attendance and the overall quality of the sport. The regulation of competitive balance in individual sports is difficult to implement, as success relies largely on the athlete’s individual skill and ability 2. In contrast, team sports can be influenced by a number of regulatory measures such as player drafts, salary caps, transfer windows, and player quotas. Analysis into Europe and North America’s regulation of competitive balance reveals a variety of measures used to foster greater equality of opportunity between teams competing with one another in sport. Unfortunately European sports are restricted somewhat, as access to sport is considered to be a social advantage and importance for the integration of citizens, and therefore cannot remain outside the scope of the fundamental principles of free movement. Although the European Union accepts the ‘specificity of sport’, it grants no exception from European Union law for the industry; a principle that has recently been reaffirmed in the decisions of Bosman 3 and Meca-Medina 4. Sports governing bodies must therefore ensure new rules and regulatory measures comply with European Union law; reducing the number of measures available to them. This thesis analyses the competitive balance in sport both as a more theoretical phenomenon and as something that concrete measures can practically inhibit or stimulate. It ‘drills down’ into how issues of competitive balance arise in a number of specific contexts (doping, corruption, the influence of sponsors and the broadcast media, and with respect to gender and disability) and examines how these specific issues may be resolved as well as drawing out the broader lessons they hold for competitive balance as a whole. It is envisaged that the thesis will not only be of academic interest but prove to be a practical tool for use by those who are at the frontline of governance of sport. 1 Lewis, A. and Taylor, J. (2003) ‘Sport: Law and Practice’, Tottel publishing, p4. 2 Success in individual sports can occasionally rely on other issues such as resources for training. It is harder to have success in winter sports (e.g. bobsleigh) if you live in Jamaica. 3 Case C-415/93 Union Royale Belge Sociétés de Football Association and others v Jean-Marc Bosman and others [1995] ECR 1-4921. 4 Case C-519/04 Meca-Medina and Majcen v Commission [2006] ECR I-6991.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available