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Title: The effect of the sheep dip pesticide diazinon on behavioural and molecular markers in the freshwater shrimp Gammarus pulex
Author: Elwahaishi, S. S.
Awarding Body: Nottingham Trent University
Current Institution: Nottingham Trent University
Date of Award: 2012
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Abstract:
The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of the organophosphorothioate pesticide diazinon, its metabolite diazinon oxon and diazinon in a commercial formulation on the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex. It was found that diazinon in the commercial formulation was significantly more toxic to G. pulex than diazinon oxon, which in turn was significantly more toxic than diazinon. In non-lethal ecotoxicity assays, 24 h exposure to diazinon and diazinon in the commercial formulation significantly inhibited the vertical movement of G. pulex, whereas diazinon oxon had no significant effect. Inhibition of feeding was observed, with diazinon in the commercial formulation causing the most reduction, then diazinon to a lesser extent, whereas diazinon oxon had no significant effect. Only diazinon oxon caused a significant inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in vitro. However, only diazinon and diazinon in the commercial formulation caused a significant inhibition of AChE activity following in vivo exposure. The levels of small heat shock protein (sHSP) and HSP 90 in post-9,000g supernatant samples were significantly increased by exposure to diazinon and the commercial diazinon formulation. Only diazinon significantly increased the level of HSP 70 in the supernatant. In contrast, diazinon and diazinon in the commercial formulation significantly increased the level of HSP 70 in 9000g pellet samples. Only diazinon in the commercial formulation significantly increased level of HSP 90 the in pellet sample. There was no significant effect of these agents on HSP 60 levels. Western blotting analysis of 10 % gels showed increased phosphotyrosine content in 51 and 75 kDa bands and increased phosphoserine and phosphothreonine content in the 75 kDa band following exposure to diazinon and diazinon in the commercial diazinon formulation. In contrast, a 51 kDa anti-phosphoserine reactive band only showed a significant increase after exposure to diazinon andIVdiazinon in the commercial diazinon. Analyses by 2D-PAGE found that a small numbers of low abundance proteins had altered levels in the 9000g supernatant sample after exposure to diazinon. However, the levels were too low to allow identification by mass spectrometry (MS). In conclusion, behavioural assays and biomarkers can be employed as useful and reliable bioindicators of environmental contamination.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.629243  DOI: Not available
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