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Title: Phosphorus-tellurium heterocycles and their lighter chalcogen analogues : from small rings to macrocycles
Author: Nordheider, Andreas
ISNI:       0000 0004 5347 6600
Awarding Body: University of St Andrews
Current Institution: University of St Andrews
Date of Award: 2014
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The research on phosphorus-chalcogen compounds enjoys a long tradition in the field of inorganic chemistry, which has led to applications such as strike-anywhere matches, precursors for metal chalcogenide thin films and versatile reagents in organic synthesis. Whereas a wide range of phosphorus-sulfur and -selenium systems is known, the literature lacks information about compounds incorporating phosphorus-tellurium bonds. This thesis describes fundamental studies that develop the basic understanding of the synthesis of phosphorus-tellurium systems and the structural characteristics of these species. The focus will be on cyclic structural motifs as these offer novel bonding modes and often an interesting reactivity. In addition, the novel compounds are compared with the properties of the sulfur and selenium analogues. Three different approaches were developed to stabilise and study compounds incorporating phosphorus-tellurium bonds: a) Stabilisation of binary organophosphorus-tellurium heterocycles by bulky substituents, b) the utilisation of P₂N₂ rings based on the dianions [{EP(NtBu)(μ-NtBu)}₂]²⁻ (E = S, Se, Te) and c) the peri-substitution of phosphorus and tellurium atoms on an acenaphthene backbone. The use of sterically demanding substituents led to the isolation of the first series of structurally characterised organophosphorus(III)-tellurium heterocycles of the type (RP)[sub]nTe[sub]m including three- to six-membered ring systems. The mild oxidation of [{EP(NtBu)(μ-NtBu)}₂]²⁻ (E = S, Se, Te) with iodine yielded macrocyclic (S, Se) or oligomeric systems (Te). Furthermore, a collection of novel P₂N₂-supported phosphorus-chalcogen heterocycles incorporating main group elements was synthesised employing [{EP(NtBu)(μ-NtBu)}₂]²⁻ (E = S, Se, Te) in metathetical reactions with main group element halides. Extension of this approach to transition metal halides generated some unusual metallocycles, as well as macrocycles and ladders incorporating coinage metals. The first peri-substituted phosphorus-tellurium species were studied regarding their interatomic and intermolecular forces. Systems of the general formula RTe–Acenap–P(iPr)₂ were shown to exhibit extensive through-space spin-spin coupling. In addition, the influence of oxidation and complexation on these interactions was investigated and the formation of peri-substituted phosphorus-tellurium cations exhibiting P–Te bonds was observed.
Supervisor: Woollins, J. Derek Sponsor: Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) ; University of St Andrews
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Heterocycles ; Macrocycles ; Phosphorus ; Tellurium ; Chalcogen ; P2N2 ; QD406.N7 ; Heterocyclic compounds ; Organophosphorus compounds ; Organotellurium compounds ; Chalcogens