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Title: Thin film electrochromic materials and devices
Author: Neeves, Matthew Kenneth
Awarding Body: University of the West of Scotland
Current Institution: University of the West of Scotland
Date of Award: 2013
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This thesis investigates in detail the thin film materials required for the construction of a thin film electrochromic device, their production by vacuum deposition and other techniques, and their characterisation by SEM, XRD, and optical and electrochemical methods, leading to a greater understanding of the materials and considerations required in the design of electrochromic layers and devices constructed with said layers. Working devices consisting of electrochromes, electrolytes and transparent conducting electrodes are constructed by methods and upon a scale that are amenable to commercial-scale production. The hardware and software components of a unique real-time spectroscopic electrochemical characterisation cell are described, which have enabled the novel synchronous collection of wideband optical transmittance and electrochemical information at intervals as small as 20ms. Optimal process conditions for the production of electrochromic transition metal oxides of nickel, titanium, tungsten and the novel nickel-chromium oxide by advanced sputtering and electron-beam evaporation techniques are investigated and described in-depth. For comparison, devices are also constructed using the well-known electrochromic material iron hexacyanoferrate, or 'Prussian Blue'. It is essential for devices intended for eyewear applications that materials are eye-safe and that traffic light recognition is not unduly impaired. The electrochromic performance of individual materials and working devices is reported for all materials and spectroscopic data is used to calculate tristimulus co-ordinates and thus characterise the colour performance of the various materials and devices. Working devices also require transparent conductive electrodes. The transparent conductive oxide indium tin oxide (ITO), as prepared by two different sputtering methods is investigated. The sheet resistance of the ITO is shown to have a significant quantifiable effect upon the switching speed of working devices and this is reported in detail.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available