Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Multi-component epoxy resin formulation for high temperature applications
Author: Poynton, Gary
ISNI:       0000 0004 5364 1063
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2014
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
The high functionality epoxy resins tetraglycidyl-4,4’-diaminodiphenyl-methane(TGDDM) and triglycidyl-p-aminophenol (TGPAP) are the main components in most aerospace grade epoxy resin formulations. Owing to their high reactivity and high viscosity, TGDDM and TGPAP pose difficulties when used in wet layup composite manufacturing. As such, these resins are often modified to achieve the desired performance both in the liquid and cured states. The main objective of this thesis is to optimise a low viscosity multi-component epoxy resin formulation suitable for use as an aerospace grade composite matrix. The formulation will allow for the addition of high levels of thermoplastic to improve the fracture toughness of the resin whilst also maintaining resin processability. Through the use of thermal analytical techniques this thesis aims to study the effects of varying the TGDDM/TGPAP ratio, incorporation of a low viscosity bi-functional epoxy resin, the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) and changes to the stoichiometric ratio (r)between reactive groups of the epoxy resin and amine hardener (4,4’-diaminodiphenylsulphone, DDS) in multi-component epoxy resin formulations. Resin formulations were optimised using factorial experimental design (FED). Results from two FED’s showed curing multi-component resins at a low stoichiometric ratio significantly increased the processing window whilst also increasing the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the cured resin. No apparent benefit could be assigned to the inclusion of TGDDM owing to its poor processability and a Tg similar to TGPAP. Up to 60% DGEBF was incorporated in a multi-component resin formulation whilst still attaining a Tg greater than 220°C. Its inclusion at 60% had the additional benefit of increasing the processing window by 48 minutes over TGPAP, an increase of 62%. Two optimised resin formulations, 100% TGPAP (100T) and a binary mix of 60% DGEBF and 40% TGPAP (60D) were taken forward to study the effects of adding a thermoplastic toughener (polyethersulphone, PES) in incremental amounts up to 50wt%. SEM images showed all toughened 100T resins had a phase separated morphology whilst all 60D resins were homogenous. The phase separation seen in 100T did not improve the matrix fracture toughness when loaded at 10 wt% and 30 wt% PES. Only when 50 wt% PES was added did fracture toughness increase in comparison to the homogenous 60D resins. Through factorial experimental design two epoxy resin formulations which excluded TGDDM were optimised with a low stoichiometric ratio. The optimum aerospace formulation is dependent on the desired processability and fracture toughness of the resin. High DGEBF-containing formulations give the longest processing windows whilst the 100% TGPAP formulation toughened with 50% PES has the highest fracture toughness.
Supervisor: Day, Richard; Wilkinson, Arthur Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: epoxy resin ; composite manufacturing ; reactive diluent ; reaction kinetics ; thermoplastic toughening ; resin formulation