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Title: Novel processing and microencapsulation of Ganoderma lucidum spores for healthcare
Author: Zhao, D.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5363 1690
Awarding Body: University College London (University of London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2014
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Ganoderma lucidum spores (GLS) have attracted increasing attention for its versatile biological activities, particularly in cancer therapy. The resilient chitin bilayer of sporoderm is conventionally regarded as an obstacle in the exploitation of bioactive ingredients. Present study found that ethanol extract of broken GLS was able to inhibit cancer cells, however, water extract, especially medium extract (containing serum protein) from unprocessed GLS have also demonstrated anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells. The effectiveness of GLS extract on the inhibition of a series of human cancer cells, namely, osteosarcoma, neuroblastoma, myeloid leukaemia and breast cancer, has been compared, and DNA assays showed that the GLS extract is more efficient in inhibiting neuroblastoma but has less effect on osteosarcoma cell line. To overcome the limitations of the existing processing methods of GLS, the feasibility of sonication as a new way to break GLS has been tested. A series of processing parameters, such as sonication power and duration, have been compared to maximise the breaking efficiency. The preservation of bioactive components of GLS (e.g. polysaccharides and ganoderic acids) from sonication processing was revealed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analyses. In vitro study showed that sonication processed GLS were able to inhibit breast cancer cells, at dose and time dependent manner, particularly at low pH (6.5), favourable for cancerous cell growth. The inhibitory efficiency of sonication processed GLS on the growth of breast cancer cells was ranked the highest, compared with that of unprocessed GLS and commercially broken GLS. To preserve further the bioactive ingredients of GLS, broken GLS have been encapsulated with alginate by electrospraying (ES). The size of GLS encapsulated alginate (GLS/A) beads was found to affect the in vitro release profiles of bioactive ingredients of GLS, and can be controlled by varying the processing parameters (e.g. crosslinking time, infuse rates and applied voltage). A series of GLS/A beads with mean sizes ranging from 500 to 2500 µm have been produced by ES and the in vitro release profiles of GLS/A beads in simulated gastrointestinal mediums were found to be related to the pH, bead size and drying methods. In summary, an advanced method combining a customised sonication with ES has been developed by setting up a lab-scale production line from processing to encapsulation of GLS. This may pave the way to produce effective GLS products with desirable natural bioactive components for healthcare.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available