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Title: Development of bioactive bread enriched with a seaweed peptide fraction with potential heart-health effects
Author: Fitzgerald, C. P.
ISNI:       0000 0004 5362 6410
Awarding Body: University College London (University of London)
Current Institution: University College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 2014
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is currently a global epidemic and is now the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The two major approaches for the prevention of CVD in the developed world are public health based Policies and clinical based Strategies focusing on high-risk individuals. Pharmaceutical companies have developed a range of treatments to tackle the causes of CVD and these include the development of anti-inflammatory, anti-hypertensive and anti-cholesterol drugs. However, unpleasant side-effects often exist with prescription drug-taking. Sourcing of natural food components from foods to provide protection against the development of CVDis a useful strategy to help combat illness. This thesis aims to utilise Irish macroalgae as a source of bioactive compounds which can be delivered in the food vehicle Bread to confer a Heart health effect to the consumer. Hypertension, one of the major risk factors associated with CVD may be controlled by inhibiting enzymes of the reninangiotensin aldosterone System (RAAS). Inhibition of the enzyme renin is an important strategy for the control of hypertension as renin is the initial and rate limiting enzyme of the RAAS. Inhibition of the circulating enzyme platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) is also important in the control of atherosclerosis development. PAF-AH generates two pro-inflammatory mediators lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and oxidized non-esterified fatty acids (oxNEFAs). Both of these mediators are involved in promotion of atherosclerotic plaque which may be lead to high blood pressure development. Macroalgae are part of the regular diet of many Asian cultures and have a tradition of being consumed in many coastal regions of the Western World. Regular consumption of macroalgae is associated with a decline in the prevalence of breast cancer and diabetes mellitus development. Species of macroalgae belonging to the group known as Rhodophyta or the red macroalgae are known to contain levels as high as 47 % protein. Several bioactive peptides, including ACE-Iinhibitory peptides were isolated previously from macroalgae protein extracts and hydrolysates. In this thesis the extraction and isolation of renin and PAF-AH inhibitory peptides from the macroalgae Palmaria palmata was carried out. The effectiveness of the isolated renin inhibitory tridecapeptide IRLIIVLMPILMA was further explored in terms of its capacity to survive gastrointestinal (GI) digestion and its ability to lower blood pressure in vivo in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The Palmaria palmata protein hydrolysate from which these peptides were identified was subsequently incorporated in to bread and the effects of its addition were observed in terms of volume, colour, texture profile, moisture, crumb structure, sensory attributes and renin inhibitory activity.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available