Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Determinants of agricultural sustainability in the Indian Punjab with a special reference to extension systems
Author: Dhol, Sukhwinder Singh
ISNI:       0000 0004 5361 7469
Awarding Body: University of Reading
Current Institution: University of Reading
Date of Award: 2014
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Punjab is an agriculturally strategic region of India because of its contribution to national food security. However, a continued reliance on wheat and rice production and overdependence on underground water resources has raised questions about sustainability of agriculture in Punjab. This research investigates the major determinants of agricultural sustainability in the Indian Punjab with a special reference to extension systems. It was conducted in two phases. The first phase defined the current state of agriculture in Punjab using five main sustainability indicators and outlined the major determinants of agricultural sustainability in this region. It concluded that Punjab's current cropping patterns, which are heavily dependent on wheat and rice, are highly intensive with low diversity potentially undermining agricultural sustainability. Low crop diversity, rice intensification and the free-of-cost availability of electricity to farm sector has had an adverse effect on the underground water table while a higher use of fertilizers and pesticides has undermined the economic sustainability of farm enterprises. However, farmers who utilised extension services used inputs more appropriately and earned significantly higher farm incomes. Thus, the second phase focussed on extension in the light of major sustainability related challenges facing Punjab agriculture. The research undertaken suggests that the Department of Agriculture (DoA) and Punjab Agricultural University (PAU) Ludhiana, the two main extension agencies currently placed in Punjab, interacted directly with 41 and 23% of the farmers respectively. However, extensionists' technical competencies related to crop diversification and natural resource management and non-technical skills in the area of agricultural economics, marketing and rural development were less developed which could impact Punjab's rate of progress toward agricultural sustainability. Relatively, the PAU specialists were significantly more competent in many areas than the DoA extensionists. Conclusions are drawn in relation to research questions and recommendations are made to policy makers, farmers and extension agencies to help draft such policies and programmes which deliver improvements in the overall sustainability of farm enterprises in Punjab.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available