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Title: Diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Botswana
Author: Kwape, Lemogang Daniel
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2012
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. In Sub-Saharan Africa, rates of CVD are increasing rapidly, but there is little evidence about the potential determinants of CVD risk in this population. This thesis investigated CVD risk factors in Gaborone, capital city of Botswana, by (i) documenting CVD risk factors in this population, (ii) investigating the association between diet and CVD risk factors and (iii) assessing the association between diet and risk of CVD. 787 adults were recruited. Of these 566 were generally “healthy” with no history of CVD, while 221 (“diseased”) had at least one reported CVD condition, hypertension or diabetes. The median (interquartile range) age was 27 (23, 32) and 52 (42, 62) years for healthy and diseased participants respectively. All participants completed an interview administered questionnaire, including a food frequency questionnaire. Height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure were measured, and a non-fasting blood sample was obtained for analysis of lipids, lipoproteins and glucose. A high prevalence of overweight and obesity (36.8%), particularly in women (50.0%), and low HDL cholesterol (<1.0 mmol/L men and <1.3 mmol/L women) (62.6%) was found. High levels of triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, glucose and high blood pressure were also found in this population of young adults in Gaborone. Total fat and/or saturated fat intake (as percentage energy) was significantly linearly associated with increased LDL cholesterol (p=0.017), triglycerides (p=0.048), glucose (p=0.044) and with decreased HDL cholesterol (p=0.021). However, fibre, polyunsaturated fatty acids and dietary patterns were not independently associated with CVD risk factors. Carbohydrates intake was significantly associated with increased risk of disease. Unexpectedly, saturated fat intake was associated with reduced disease risk, but weakened after nutrients adjustment. CVD risk factors are relatively high in this population. These results suggest a need for further research on CVD in Botswana.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: University of Aberdeen ; Department of Research Science and Technology ; Botswana ; Diagnofirm Medical Laboratory ; Botswana ; Dennis Burkitt Fellowship
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Cardiovascular system ; Diet