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Title: Church of Scotland and the development of British influence in Southern Nigeria 1846-1885
Author: Okon, Asibong Akpan
Awarding Body: King's College London (University of London)
Current Institution: King's College London (University of London)
Date of Award: 1973
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Situated on the estuary of the Calabar Elver at fifty miles from the sea and about 4 1/2° Forth of the Equator on the Guinea Coast, Old Calabar occupied a very strategic position which brought the Bfik into contact first with the European adventurers, explorers, traders and later missionaries, at a time when other ethnic groups in the interior had never or scarcely ever heard of the existence of white men. The result of such a favourable location was that the Efik, who originally came in waves as bands of fishermen and agriculturalists, developed into a small commercial empire and a power to be reckoned with for some distance around its nucleus. Early contacts with the Europeans caused a certain amount of cultural change regarding the Efik aristocracy. Rich traders lived in imported European houses. The kings bought State coaches and large colourful umbrellas as symbols of prestige. Wealthy 'noblemen' and 'gentlemen' took foreign names, and titles such as 'ESQUIRE' were freely used. All these had no significant effect on the lives of the Efik as a whole. The unity of the society was not at stake. Sovereignty was not threatened; nor were institutions in danger of being swept away. But from 1846, when the missionaries arrived with their revolutionary and seditious propaganda, dramatic changes took place in Efik land. Through the missionary preaching and teaching, through their concerted attack on native customs and through the occasional application of consular force, Efik society was transformed. Real cultural change gradually emerged. Women could defy Efik rulers with impunity. Sons could disobey their fathers and slaves their masters. And, above all, Ekpe, the instrument of government, having been rendered powerless, the power of the Efik rulers was simultaneously weakened, thus making it possible for the British Consul to encroach upon their authority. Basis, how such a far-reaching cultural transformation could take place.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available