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Title: Translational paradigms to assess affective state in humans and animals
Author: Anderson , Michael Harvey
Awarding Body: University of Bristol
Current Institution: University of Bristol
Date of Award: 2013
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Cognitive affective bias and affective state have been extensively researched in humans. However, the majority of tasks cannot be translated to animal paradigms and contribute to the failing of novel drugs and the poor understanding of the aetiology of affective disorders. These biases have recently been observed in rodents, when a somewhat depressive state induced a negative judgement bias. The development of translational tasks capable of quantifying these biases across species would be a valuable tool. The aim of this project was to develop such tasks. The tasks used were, firstly, the affective tone discrimination task, in which both rats and humans discriminated tones-one predicting reward, one the avoidance of punishment. Ambiguous probe tones were used to assess judgement bias during psychopharmacological manipulation in rats and anxiety in humans. The second task translated a rodent successive negative contrast task into a human paradigm, the influence of an anxiety-like state on responses during the loss and gain of reward was investigated. Participants in the affective tone discrimination task tended to avoid punishment in response to ambiguity, which was related to state anxiety. The induction of acute anxiety slowed the identification of reward; no relationship with mood was observed. Rodents similarly tended to avoid punishment, which was not attenuated by acute drug treatment, although chronic treatment tended to reduce this bias. Acute treatment with reboxetine reduced the anticipation and motivation for reward. In the successive contrast task a positive contrast effect was observed, whilst the induction of an anxiety-like state also induced a negative contrast effect, although the underlying affective state was not correlated. These tasks detected changes in performance via affective state manipulations in humans and psychopharmacological administrations in rodents. This highlights the potential of translational tasks. Future studies are required to further validate these tasks and fully elucidate the influence of affective state.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available