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Title: Development of the Quantum Lattice Boltzmann method for simulation of quantum electrodynamics with applications to graphene
Author: Lapitski, Denis
ISNI:       0000 0004 5354 1548
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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We investigate the simulations of the the Schrödinger equation using the onedimensional quantum lattice Boltzmann (QLB) scheme and the irregular behaviour of solution. We isolate error due to approximation of the Schrödinger solution with the non-relativistic limit of the Dirac equation and numerical error in solving the Dirac equation. Detailed analysis of the original scheme showed it to be first order accurate. By discretizing the Dirac equation consistently on both sides we derive a second order accurate QLB scheme with the same evolution algorithm as the original and requiring only a one-time unitary transformation of the initial conditions and final output. We show that initializing the scheme in a way that is consistent with the non-relativistic limit supresses the oscillations around the Schrödinger solution. However, we find the QLB scheme better suited to simulation of relativistic quantum systems governed by the Dirac equation and apply it to the Klein paradox. We reproduce the quantum tunnelling results of previous research and show second order convergence to the theoretical wave packet transmission probability. After identifying and correcting the error in the multidimensional extension of the original QLB scheme that produced asymmetric solutions, we expand our second order QLB scheme to multiple dimensions. Next we use the QLB scheme to simulate Klein tunnelling of massless charge carriers in graphene, compare with theoretical solutions and study the dependence of charge transmission on the incidence angle, wave packet and potential barrier shape. To do this we derive a representation of the Dirac-like equation governing charge carriers in graphene for the one-dimensional QLB scheme, and derive a two-dimensional second order graphene QLB scheme for more accurate simulation of wave packets. We demonstrate charge confinement in a graphene device using a configuration of multiple smooth potential barriers, thereby achieving a high ratio of on/off current with potential application in graphene field effect transistors for logic devices. To allow simulation in magnetic or pseudo-magnetic fields created by deformation of graphene, we expand the scheme to include vector potentials. In addition, we derive QLB schemes for bilayer graphene and the non-linear Dirac equation governing Bose-Einstein condensates in hexagonal optical lattices.
Supervisor: Dellar, Paul Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Numerical analysis ; Partial differential equations ; Quantum theory (mathematics) ; Nanostructures ; Dirac equation ; graphene ; quantum tunnelling ; Klein paradox ; numerical method ; relativistic quantum systems ; charge confinement ; quantum simulation