Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.617541
Title: The molecular basis of enhanced glucose transporter, SGLT1, expression in the diabetic intestine
Author: Alshali, Rasha
ISNI:       0000 0004 5351 0098
Awarding Body: University of Liverpool
Current Institution: University of Liverpool
Date of Award: 2014
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Abstract:
Dietary carbohydrates are hydrolyzed in the small intestine ultimately, by the brush-border membrane disaccharidases (sucrase, maltase and lactase) into monosaccharides: D-glucose, D-galactose and D-fructose. D-glucose and D-galactose are transported across the brush border membrane (BBM) from the intestinal lumen into enterocytes by the Na+- dependent glucose transporter 1, SGLT1, while D-fructose is transported by GLUT5. These monosaccharides, exit the cell across the baso-lateral membrane (BLM) into the systemic circulation via the facilitated monosaccharide transporter, GLUT2. SGLT1 regulation is vital for the provision of glucose to the body and for maintaining glucose homoeostasis. The expression and activity of SGLT1 are adaptively regulated by dietary sugars in most species studied. The intestinal capacity to absorb glucose is maintained via basal level of SGLT1 expression. However, this capacity becomes limited when the luminal carbohydrates exceed a threshold level, leading to up-regulation of SGLT1. Previous work in our laboratory has shown that luminal sugar concentration, when above a threshold, is detected by the intestinal glucose sensor, consisting of two subunits, Taste 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and 3 (T1R3) expressed in enteroendocrine L-cells. This activates a pathway, in endocrine cells, leading to secretion of the gut hormone glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2), known to up-regulate SGLT1 expression. Binding of GLP-2 to its receptor on the enteric neurons induces a neuronal response evoking secretion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and/or Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) by sub-mucosal plexus. Binding of VIP/PACAP to their receptor VPAC1 (VIP and PACAP receptor type 1) on the basolateral membrane of absorptive enterocytes leads to increased concentration of intracellular cAMP which in turn enhances the half-life of SGLT1 mRNA, increasing the number of SGLT1 proteins per enterocytes. In diabetes, the intestinal capacity for glucose absorption is enhanced complicating the aetiology of the disease. This enhanced expression is independent of either luminal sugar and blood glucose concentrations or insulin levels. The work in this thesis was aimed at identify molecular basis of enhanced SGLT1 expression in the diabetic intestine using intestinal tissues from rats with experimentally induced diabetes and biopsies from the intestine of human diabetics. The data indicate that increased SGLT1 expression is due to dysregulation of pathway controlling SGLT1 expression.
Supervisor: Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya; Ellis, Anthony Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.617541  DOI: Not available
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