Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Micro-geodynamics of the Karakoram Fault Zone, Ladakh, NW Himalaya
Author: Wallis, David
Awarding Body: University of Leeds
Current Institution: University of Leeds
Date of Award: 2014
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Access from Institution:
Microgeodynamics relates grain-scale deformation microstructures to macroscopic tectonic processes. Here the microgeodynamic approach combines optical and electron microscopy, including electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD), with field geology, geothermobarometry and microphysical modelling to study fault rocks deformed within a major continental strike-slip fault to quantify changes in fault zone structure and rheology with crustal depth. The overall thesis rational therefore is to test existing fault models against an exhumed example of a continental strike-slip fault zone, namely the central Karakoram Fault Zone (KFZ), NW India. This approach establishes changes in deformation processes with depth in the upper- to mid-crust and suggests that a range of fault weakening mechanisms have reduced fault rock shear strengths, typified by friction coefficients of 0.3-0.4. Metamorphic petrology and geothermobarometry are used to place the KFZ in the context of regional tectono-metamorphic evolution. It is shown using diagnostic microstructures and pressure-temperature-time paths that the fault initiated after peak metamorphism (677-736°C, 875-1059 MPa) and subsequent migmatisation (688±44°C, 522±91 MPa) and leucogranite emplacement (448±100 MPa). Retrograde phyllonites formed during later strike-slip deformation are investigated in detail using EBSD, geothermometry and microphysical modelling. The phyllonites formed at 351±34°C and had low shear strength (<30 MPa) during frictional-viscous flow. EBSD is also used to derive a novel strain proxy based on quartz crystal preferred orientation intensity. Application of this method distinguishes deformation distributions in transects across the KFZ. Deformation intensity varies from <0.2 in essentially undeformed domains to 1.6 within shear zone strands formed at 500-550°C and c. 15 km depth. Evaluation of the history of the KFZ suggests that whilst it plays a relatively minor role in accommodating India-Asia collision, it can nevertheless be used as an analogue for major continental strike-slip fault zone structure.
Supervisor: Phillips, Richard ; Geoff, Lloyd Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available