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Title: Magnetic resonance imaging of the neonatal cardiovascular system : impact of patent ductus arteriosus
Author: Broadhouse, Kathryn Mary
Awarding Body: Imperial College London
Current Institution: Imperial College London
Date of Award: 2013
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The incidence of premature birth is increasing in absolute number and as a proportion of all births around the world. Many pathologies seen in this cohort are related to abnormal blood supply. Fetal and premature cardiovascular systems differ greatly as to maintain adequate blood flow to the developing organs in the uterine and extra-uterine environments require very different circulations. Subsequently following preterm birth the immature cardiovascular system undergoes abrupt adaptations, often resulting in the prolonged patency of the fetal shunt, ductus arteriosus. The impact of a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is poorly understood. However it is thought that large ductal shunt volumes may result in congestive cardiac failure and systemic hypo-­‐perfusion. Cardiac MRI has contributed greatly to the understanding of many cardiovascular diseases and congenital defects in paediatric and adult patients. Translating these imaging techniques to assess the preterm cardiovascular system requires careful optimization due to their condition, size and significantly increased heart rate. The work presented in this thesis employs multiple functional CMR techniques to investigate the preterm cardiovascular system in the presence and absence of PDA and the resultant cardiac function. A novel technique utilizing PC MRI to quantify PDA shunt volume and its impact on flow distribution is presented. Despite large shunt volumes, systemic circulation remained within normal range, although slight reduction is detectable when assessed at group level. Subsequently the impact of PDA and associated increased work load on left ventricular dimensions and function was then investigated using SSFP imaging. Results indicated that cardiac function was maintained even in the presence of large shunt volumes. Finally 4D PC sequences were employed to evaluate pulse wave velocity and flow regime within the preterm aorta, demonstrating the feasibility of hemodynamic assessment in this cohort. The findings of these studies provide insight into the impact of PDA. The reliable measurement and assessment of preterm cardiovascular system provides the potential to improve the understanding of the development and effects of certain pathologies seen in this cohort.
Supervisor: Groves, Alan ; Hajnal, Jo ; Edwards, David ; Azzopardi, Denis Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available