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Title: The effects of fluctuations in oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle on glucose homeostasis, energy balance, exercise and premenstrual syndrome
Author: Hillier , Sarah Elizabeth
ISNI:       0000 0004 5347 6635
Awarding Body: Oxford Brookes University
Current Institution: Oxford Brookes University
Date of Award: 2014
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It is widely accepted that the loss of sex hormones after the menopause is strongly linked with cancer, insulin resistance and obesity, with variations in sex hormone concentrations being responsible in part, for the differences reported in energy metabolism and glycaemic control between genders. As such a greater understanding of the effects that oestrogen and progesterone may have on women's health and their potential long term consequences is required. This thesis reports evidence of three studies investigating the effects of oestrogen and progesterone during the menstrual cycle on glucose and insulin response, energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and premenstrual syndrome (PMS). The aim of the first study was to investigate glucose and insulin responses to a 75g glucose load during different phases of the menstrual cycle. Venous blood samples for baseline measurements of oestradiol and progesterone were collected every other week day from eighteen regularly menstruating women for one complete menstrual cycle. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT, 75g glucose) was performed on three separate days during the next complete menstrual cycle. The results report an increase in glucose area under the curve (AUC) and insulin AUC during the luteal phase (P<0.05) compared to the menstrual and follicular phase, but no significant differences in insulin sensitivity between phases. The findings indicate that both oestrogen and progesterone during the luteal phase may affect glycaemic response and this potentially has significant implications for the development of type 2 diabetes over prolonged periods of time. The second study investigated energy expenditure and substrate oxidation at rest and during a 30 minute moderate intensity walking exercise within the three phases of the menstrual cycle. Sex hormone concentrations were collected in the same manner as study I. Nineteen women undertook resting measures and ten for exercise. The study reports a decrease in carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation (P
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available