Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Translational control of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) vFlip expression
Author: Othman, Zulkefley
ISNI:       0000 0004 5347 5624
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2014
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is a gammaherpesvirus from the Herpesviridae family and causes a number of proliferative diseases such as Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and Castleman disease. The prime effectors of the cell proliferation occurring during KSHV infections are the latent gene products LANA, vCyclin and vFLIP. The analysis of the mRNA latent gene transcripts produced by KSHV showed no monocistronic transcript encoding vFLIP suggesting its expression was regulated by a non-canonical translation mechanism. Indeed, previous studies proposed that an IRES element located within the vCyclin ORF is responsible for vFLIP expression. We have now shown that a minimum fragment of 252 nt of within the vCyclin ORF and directly upstream of vFLIP can function as IRES. The KSHV IRES 252 fragment showed IRES activity in Rabbit Reticulocyte Lysate (RRL) but not in KSderived cell lines. Due to lack of information on the mechanism of internal initiation mediated by the KSHV IRES, we have analyzed the role of eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G for the IRES function in RRL. Surprisingly, the KSHV IRES require the whole eIF4F complex for it to function. In addition, several IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs) have been shown to interact with KSHV IRES by Mass spectrometly analysis. These are Ybox protein 1 (YB-l), eukaryotic translation elongation factor la (EEF1Al and EEF1A2), heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRPK), heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein Cl/C2 (hnRP Cl/C2), and Poly(rc) binding protein 1 (PCBP1). Although the interaction between the KSHV lRES and IT AFs has yet to be confirmed by direct interaction studies, analysis on the YB-l showed an interaction with KSHV lRES based on Western blot result. With several ITAFs interacting with the KSHV IRES and the requirement for eIF4F, we then characterized the RNA secondary stmcture of the KSHV IRES in solution to understand how the IRES stmcture could coordinate such interactions. Chemical and enzymatic probing, combined with structure folding prediction using Mfold revealed 3 domains with domain I is the most structured domain. In search of structure similarities among IRESes, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) was found to be the closest, although the XIAP IRES contains only two domains. The two IRESes also share similarities for a polypyrimidine sequence located in domain II. For the first time, we have showed the requirements of the KSHV IRES for canonical, non-canonical initiation factors and preliminary prediction of secondary structure which shows that the KSHV IRES does not belong to any existing functional groups of IRESes and a novel DNA vims IRES.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available