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Title: Voltage control in distribution networks using on-load tap changer transformers
Author: Gao, Chao
Awarding Body: University of Bath
Current Institution: University of Bath
Date of Award: 2013
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Voltage is one of the most important parameters for electrical power networks. The Distribution Network Operators (DNOs) have the responsibility to maintain the voltage supplied to consumers within statutory limits. On-Load Tap Changer (OLTC) transformer equipped with Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) relay is the most widely used and effective voltage control device. Due to a variety of advantages of adding Distributed Generation (DG), more and more distributed resources are connected to local distribution networks to solve constraints of networks, reduce the losses from power supply station to consumers. When DG is connected, the direction of power flow can be reversed when the DG output power exceeds the local load. This means that the bidirectional power flow can either be from power grid towards loads, or vice versa. The connection point of DG may suffer overvoltage when the DG is producing a large amount of apparent power. The intermittent nature of renewable energy resources which are most frequently used in DG technology results in uncertainty of distribution network operation. Overall, conventional OLTC voltage control methods need to be changed when DG is connected to distribution networks. The required voltage control needs to address challenges outlined above and new control method need to be formulated to reduce the limitations of DG output restricted by current operational policies by DNOs. The thesis presents an analysis of voltage control using OLTC transformer with DG in distribution networks. The thesis reviews conventional OLTC voltage control schemes and existing policies of DNOs in the UK. An overview of DG technologies is also presented with their operation characteristics based on power output. The impact of DG on OLTC voltage control schemes in distribution networks is simulated and discussed. The effects of different X/R ratio of overhead line and underground cable are also considered. These impacts need to be critically assessed before any new method implementation. The thesis also introduces the new concepts of Smart Grid and Smart Meter in terms of the transition from passive to active distribution networks. The role of Smart Meter and an overview of communication technologies that could be used for voltage control are investigated. The thesis analyses the high latency of an example solution of which cost and availability are considered to demonstrate the real-time voltage control using Smart Metering with existing communication infrastructures cannot be achieved cost-effectively. The thesis provides an advanced compensation-based OLTC voltage control algorithm using Automatic Compensation Voltage Control (ACVC) technique to improve the voltage control performance with DG penetration without communication. The proposed algorithm is simulated under varying load and DG conditions based on Simulink MATLAB to show the robustness of the proposed method. A generic 11kV network in the UK is modelled to evaluate the correct control performance of the advanced voltage control algorithm while increasing the DG capacity.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available