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Title: Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in children with diarrhoea in slum areas of Nairobi, Kenya
Author: Mbae, Cacilia Kathure
Awarding Body: Open University
Current Institution: Open University
Date of Award: 2013
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Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness. The distribution of and factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections are poorly defined in high risk vulnerable populations such as those living in urban informal settlements. Species of Cryptosporidium and Giardia are the most common non-bacterial causes of diarrhoea in children and the HIV infected individuals, yet data on their role remains scanty or non existent in Kenya. This study investigated the occurance of Cryptosporidium and Giardia species, genotypes and subtypes in children, both hospitalized and living in an informal settlement in Nairobi. Methods: This was a prospective cross- sectional study in which faecal samples were collected from HIV infected and uninfected children aged five years and below presenting with diarrhoea at selected outpatient clinics in Mukuru informal settlements, or admitted to paediatric wards to the Mbagathi District Hospital. A total of 2112 samples were collected between January 2010 and December 2011, analysed through formal ether concentration and Modified Ziehl Neelsen (MZN) staining, and screened for presence of intestinal parasites by microscopy. Those found positive for Cryptosporidium were further analysed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (pCR-RFLP) of the 18srRNA gene for species identification and PCR-sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene, while those Giardia positive were analysed through PCR-RFLP ii ------- of the Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) gene, assemblage specific primers targeting the Triose phosphate isomerase (Tpi) and PCR-sequencing of P giardin gene for identification of assemblages and sub-assemblages. Results: In total 54112112 (25.6%) children were positive for at least one intestinal parasite, with the common parasites being: Entamoeba his-to[ytica, 225 (36.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. 187, (30.5%) and Giardia intestinalis, 98 (16%).The prevalence of intestinal parasites infection was higher among children from outpatient clinics 43211577(27.4%) than among inpatients; 109/535 (20.1%) p
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available