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Title: Dietary determinants of fat mass in children
Author: Johnson, L.
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2008
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This thesis investigates the dietary determinants of fat mass in children using prospective data on diet, fat mass and a range of important confounders (including maternal BMI and education, child’s baseline weight status and TV watching) from a random sub-sample (N ~ 600) of children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.
Investigation I assessed bias in the reporting of energy intake (EI) and found that under-reporting was more common among fatter children. Controlling for misreporting allowed the expected direct effect of EI on fat mass to be observed. Investigation 2 modelled the impact of dietary energy density (DED) on fatness and found that, after controlling for confounders, each 1 kJ/g increase in DED at age 7 y increased the odds of having excess adiposity at age 9 y by 36%. There was no evidence of an effect of DED at age 5 y on having excess adiposity at age 9 y. Investigation 3 found the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was low in this sample. There was no evidence that sugar-sweetened beverages were related to fat mass or excess adiposity and therefore are not a significant driver of obesity in this sample of children. Investigation 4 characterised an energy-dense, low-fibre, high-fat dietary pattern score using reduced rank regression. After adjusting for confounding, children in the highest quintile of dietary pattern score (consuming the most energy dense, lowest fibre and highest fat diets) and age 5 and 7 y were 2.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 6.1) and 4.2 (95% CI 2.1 to 9.4) times more likely to have excess adiposity at age 9 y respectively compared to children with the lowest quintile of dietary pattern score. Dietary patterns appear to have a bigger impact on obesity risk than single dietary factors suggesting that the prevention of obesity should take a whole-diet approach.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available