Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.604539
Title: Free will in device-independent cryptography
Author: Pope, James Edward
ISNI:       0000 0004 5356 9890
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2014
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Abstract:
Device-independent cryptography provides security in various tasks whilst removing an assumption that cryptographers previously thought of as crucial -- complete trust in the machinations of their experimental apparatus. The theory of Bell inequalities as a proof of indeterminism within nature allows for secure device-independent schemes requiring neither trust in the cryptographers' devices nor reliance on the completeness of quantum mechanics. However, the extreme paranoia attributable to the relaxed assumptions within device independence requires an explicit consideration of the previously assumed ability of the experimenters to freely make random choices. This thesis addresses the so-called `free will loophole', presenting Bell tests and associated cryptographic protocols robust against adversarial manipulation of the random number generators with which measurements in a Bell test are selected. We present several quantitative measures for this experimental free will, otherwise known as measurement dependence. We discuss how an eavesdropper maliciously preprogramming the experimenters' untrusted devices can falsely simulate the violation of a Bell inequality. We also bound the amount of Bell violation achievable within a certain degree of measurement dependence. This analysis extends to device-independent randomness expansion, bounding the guessing probability and estimating the amount of privacy amplification required to distil private randomness. The protocol is secure against either arbitrary no-signalling or quantum adversaries. We also consider device-independent key distribution, studying adversarial models that exploit the free will loophole. Finally, we examine a model correlated between the random number generators and Bell devices across multiple runs of a Bell test. This enables an explicit exposition of the optimal cheating strategy and how the correlations manifest themselves within this strategy. We prove that there remain Bell violations for a sufficiently high, yet non-maximal degree of measurement dependence which cannot be simulated by a classical attack, regardless of how many runs of the experiment those choices are correlated over.
Supervisor: Ekert, Artur Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.604539  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Quantum theory (mathematics) ; Quantum information processing ; Atomic and laser physics ; quantum cryptography ; device-independent cryptography ; Bell nonlocality ; Bell inequalities ; free will ; determinism
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