Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS:
Title: Cavitation-enhanced tumour-targeting virotherapy by ultrasound
Author: Mo, Steven
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
Availability of Full Text:
Access from EThOS:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Restricted access.
Access from Institution:
Systemic administration of adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors for the treatment of cancer is limited by poor circulation kinetics and inefficient uptake from the bloodstream into tumours. This study reports a novel method for linkage of highly-PEGylated gold nanoparticles (AuPEG) to Ad5 by a single reduction cleavable bond. The resulting ‘dandelion’ structure provides very effective steric shielding with only minimal and reversible modification of the Ad5 capsid. This ablates in vitro cell infection, improves protection against the binding of antibodies, and enhances in vivo circulation kinetics. Focused ultrasound is a promising technology for the non-invasive, targeted treatment of cancer. In the context of drug delivery, cavitational energy generated upon exposure of ultrasound contrast agents to focused ultrasound can be used as a powerful stimulus to move therapeutics over distances of hundreds of microns away from blood vessels. In addition to providing a platform for effective stealthing, conjugation of AuPEG to Ad5 also increases the effective density of Ad5. This increase in density imparts a second major advantage on the strategy, observed for the first time in the present study: denser particles are transported significantly farther by cavitation-induced microstreaming than identically-sized particles of lower density. Specifically, in in vitro tests using a tumour-mimicking flow-channel phantom model and in in vivo experiments using tumour bearing mice, Ad5–AuPEG was delivered farther from vessels in response to ultrasound induced cavitation than either naked Ad5 or polymer-coated Ad5. The enhancements in stealthing and improvements in response to ultrasound provided by this strategy enabled up to 12% (S.D. 0.97) of the injected dose to be deposited in the tumour, compared to just 0.12% (S.D. 0.05) for Ad5 without ultrasound (p < 0.001). Consequently, in a survival study, mice treated with Ad5–AuPEG with focussed ultrasound had the slowest tumour growth and longest survival rate when compared to mice treated with Ad5 alone, Ad5–AuPEG alone, or Ad5 with focussed ultrasound. These results provide compelling evidence that the combination of focussed ultrasound with density-augmented stealthed Ad5 results in improved delivery to tumours and therapeutic efficacy. This combination of ultrasound with particle modification for optimal cavitation-mediated delivery has the potential to be applied to a broad range of anti-cancer nano-medicines and therapeutics to augment their bio-availability for improved cancer treatment.
Supervisor: Coussios, Constantin; Seymour, Len Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Nano-biotechnology ; Tumours ; Viruses ; Nanomaterials ; Organic synthesis ; Biomedical engineering ; Ultrasound ; virus ; gold ; nanoparticle ; tumour ; cancer ; adenovirus ; density