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Title: Palivizumab prophylaxis : practices and clinical outcomes in infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia
Author: Athiraman, Naveen Kumar
ISNI:       0000 0004 5356 1418
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2014
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Introduction: Infants with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD) are at higher risk of developing severe RSV Bronchiolitis requiring hospitalisation. Palivizumab Immunoprophylaxis (PIP) was shown to reduce the severity of illness and hence the need for hospitalisation. Currently PIP is recommended for all infants with BPD, but there is little evidence on which infants with BPD would most benefit from PIP. Aim: This study aims to identify the clinical benefit of administering PIP to infants with BPD of different severities and to determine which infants would benefit most from PIP. In order to achieve this, the study also identifies the incidence of BPD, categorised into mild, moderate and severe in infants, in the Greater Manchester Region (GMR).Methods: This is a multi-centre, prospective, observational cohort study, involving 11 hospitals across GMR. Patients were recruited over 2 years, from 1st April 2009 to 31st March 2011. The infants with BPD were recruited and further categorised in various severities, based on Jobe’s BPD classification [Jobe et al 2001]. Patients were followed up for a minimum of one year. Results: The incidence of BPD in the GMR was 5.9 infants per 1000 live births. On categorisation by level of severity, the study found 31% of these to have mild BPD, 39% moderate and 30% severe BPD. Around 60% of infants received PIP in our cohort: one third of mild group, two thirds of moderate and three quarters of severe BPD. The overall proportion of hospitalisation for all the respiratory illnesses in infants with BPD was 44%. The overall incidence of hospitalization secondary to RSV infection was 7.6% of the cohort, and 14.8% due to other respiratory viruses. PIP was most beneficial in infants with moderate BPD (p = 0.016). Infants hospitalised with RSV infection required more admissions to HDU, required a longer duration of supplemental oxygen as well as a longer hospital stay compared to infants hospitalised due to other respiratory viruses and all other respiratory illnesses. Conclusion: This is the first study identifying the incidence of BPD in the GMR, which was lower than expected based on estimates from the JCVI. Both, the distribution of BPD into the various severity categories, as well as the requirement of hospital admission secondary to respiratory illness, were in keeping with published evidence from the USA and UK. PIP practices across North West of England were varied and not compliant with JCVI guidelines. Infants with moderate BPD showed the largest benefit from receiving PIP. This is a novel finding that highlights the need for further research, to determine whether a subgroup of infants might benefit from PIP.
Supervisor: Clayton, Peter Sponsor: Abbott Pharmaceuticals
Qualification Name: Thesis (M.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia ; Respiratory Syncytial virus ; Palivizumab Immunoprophylaxis ; Other respiratory viruses