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Title: Cardiovascular risk in ageing men of different ethnicities : inter-relationships between imaging and endocrine markers
Author: Rezailashkajani, Mohammadreza
Awarding Body: University of Manchester
Current Institution: University of Manchester
Date of Award: 2012
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Cardiovascular disease varies by ethnicity in the UK. South Asians (SA) have higher coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes prevalence, while African-Caribbeans (AfC) have greater stroke, but intriguingly lower CHD rates despite higher blood pressures and diabetes risk than Europeans. Conventional risk factors do not fully explain such differences. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that the hormones, vitamin D measured as 25(OH)D and aldosterone, would be independently associated with intermediate cardiovascular outcome markers in these ethnic groups. Community-dwelling men 40-80 years old (AfC: n=67, 55±10yr; SA: n=68, 55±10yr; European: n=63, 57±8yr) were sampled from Greater Manchester’s multi-ethnic population. The intermediate markers examined were aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), left ventricular (LV) mass and function, and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), measured non-invasively by ultrasound, and hemodynamic profiling methods (the Arteriograph) in the total sample and by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a subsample of 50. Adjusted for age, systolic blood pressure and diabetes, mean(SE) aPWV by the Arteriograph, was 0.5(0.2) m/s higher in SA than AfC and Europeans (p=0.01), which paralleled known cross-ethnic CHD risk differences in the UK. By MRI, aPWV along the descending aorta in SA was 0.7(0.3) and 0.8(0.3) m/s higher than that in AfC and Europeans, but aPWV along the aortic arch was not significantly different. Unlike aldosterone, 25(OH)D was independently and inversely correlated with aPWV (unstandardised B(SE)=-0.013[0.004] m/s, p<0.001), and partly explained the ethnic variation in aPWV. Similar inverse correlations were found between 25(OH)D and LV concentricity measured by echocardiography and MRI. Compared to Europeans, SA and AfC, had 21(3) and 14(3) nmol/L lower mean(SE) 25(OH)D, respectively (p<0.01). Mean(SE) of relative wall thickness, an index of LV concentricity by echocardiography, was 0.05(0.01) higher in SA and AfC than Europeans. Lower 25(OH)D levels were also associated with higher myocardial deformation rates measured by MRI myocardial tagging (n=50), supporting previous animal experimental evidence. A one standard deviation (SD) decrease in 25(OH)D was associated with a 0.38 SD increase in absolute systolic strain rate (p=0.003) and 0.22 SD rise in diastolic strain rate (p=0.04). Right and left CIMT showed different relations with 25(OH)D and aldosterone. Left-right CIMT differences varied by ethnicity and were related to SA ethnicity and aldosterone levels. Two related technical studies investigated the relatively new method of hemodynamic profiling, the Arteriograph, used here. The results suggested a standardisation method of aortic length estimation for purely central aPWV, which significantly improved aPWV agreement between the Arteriograph and MRI (reference method here), and was used for calibrating the Arteriograph aPWV in the above-mentioned results for the total sample. Future well-designed trials are necessary to investigate any cause-effect relationship between vitamin D deficiency and the unfavourable cardiovascular intermediate outcomes found here in a cross-sectional design and multi-ethnic background.
Supervisor: Cruickshank, Kennedy; Wu, Frederick Sponsor: Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Facility, Manchester ; BBSRC ; ORSAS ; University of Manchester ; Magnetic Resonance Imaging Facility, University of Manchester ; National Institute for Health Research, Manchester Biomedical Research Centre
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Ethnicity ; Arterial stiffness ; Pulse wave velocity ; vitamin D ; aldosterone ; concentric remodeling, left ventricle ; carotid intima media thickness ; magnetic resonance imaging ; echocardiography ; cardiovascular imaging ; myocardial strain ; reflection waves ; epidemiology ; cardiovascular risk ; South Asians ; African-Caribbean ; large arteries ; hemodynamics ; central blood pressure