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Title: Fazzan under the rule of the Awlad Muhammad : a study in political, economic and intellectual history
Author: El-Hesnawi, Habib Wada's
Awarding Body: SOAS, University of London
Current Institution: SOAS, University of London
Date of Award: 1987
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The Awlad Muhammad came to power in Fazzan in the last quarter of the fifteenth century or in the early years of the sixteenth, and built Murzuq and made it their capital. Murzuq soon became one of the most important commercial, political and intellectual centres of the Sahara in the sixteenth century and continued to be so thereafter. This study limits itself to the period the sixteenth century until the end of the dynasty of the Awlad Muhammad in 1813AD, and is primarily concerned with the political, cultural and economic history of Fazzan in the framework of the history of Libya during this period, and of Libya's relations with the bilad as-Sudan, with emphasis on the interior development of Fazzan and on its relations with the Sudanic States in Hausaland and, in particular, Bornu, with which Fazzan maintained close ties throughout this period. The thesis is divided into 8 chapters and appendices. Chapter I: an introduction gives Ca) a full examination and description of the sources, Cb) a short description of the geographical setting, (c) an historical background. Chapter II: 'The establishment of the Awlad Muhammad' deals with_the crucial years just before and after the establishment of the Awlad Muhammad until 1577. In other words, it examines the conditions under which • Muhammad al-Faai and his successors were able to build a political base which enabled them to establish hereditary rule in Fazzan. Chapter III: 'The internal political developments' describes the political developments in Fazzan and discusses how the Awlad Muhammad succeeded in maintaining their power despite the efforts of the Ottomans in Tripoli to terminate their rule; the struggle for power and control of the country, within the family of the Awlad Muh•ammad and between them and the outsiders • Chapter IV: 'The relations between the Awlad Muhammad and the Ottomans and the Qaramanlis in Tripoli' deals with the Ottoman policy toward the Sahara and the Sudan, and how the Ottomans sent a military expedition in 1577 to occupy Fazzan; also their attempt, without success, to rule Fazzan directly from Tripoli. Chapter V: 'The end of the Awlad Muhammad' discusses the reasons why the Fasha decided to reannex~ Fazzan and·bring it back under the direct rule of Tripoli in 1813, and assesses the story from the various sources of the way the dynasty of the Awlad Muhammad came to an end. Chapter VI: 'The administration of the Awlad Muhammad in Fazzan' deals with the concept of the maKhzan, office titles, the army, taxation and revenue. Chapter VII: 'Intellectual activities and educational institutions' examines the development of intellectual life and the educational institutions in Fazzan. Chapter VIII: 'Tripoli-Fazzan diplomatic contacts with the Sudan' deals with relations and interaction of both Tripoli and Fazzan with the Sudanese States, especiall~ with Kanem-Bornu. Finally, in discussing the external relations of Fazzan, the chapter discusses the ~ or Pilgrimage as a tool in conducting foreign policy. The Appendices include a chronicle and more than 200 documents related to the topics of the thesis. These documents are in their original language and form but some of them are translated and annotated.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available