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Title: Synthesis of controlled porosity resorcinol formaldehyde organic and carbon xerogels for adsorption applications
Author: Oyedoh, Eghe Amenze
Awarding Body: Queen's University Belfast
Current Institution: Queen's University Belfast
Date of Award: 2013
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The synthesis of resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels was investigated by controlling its porosity for potential use as a precursor for activated carbon adsorbents for heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater. Resorcinol formaldehyde carbon xerogels were synthesised by sol-gel polymerization of resorcinol (R) with formaldehyde (F) in the presence of sodium carbonate (C) and then vacuum dried. Resorcinol formaldehyde (RF) gels were synthesised at same temperature conditions with varying resorcinol ! catalyst (R/C) and resorcinol/ water (R/W) ratios. The characterization of the resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels (RF), carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels (CRF) included: pore size distribution; surface area (BET); scanning electron microscopy (SEM!EDX); FTIR spectroscopy; and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The ACRF was also analysed to determine its pHpzc , pHSolution , surface basicity and acidity. The resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels were carbonised and activated by physical activation with carbon dioxide. The surface areas of the carbonized resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels (CRF) and activated carbon resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels (ACRF) are 577.3 m2/g and 993.5 m2!g respectively. The increase in surface area is as a result of the development of microporosity with activation. In comparison the surface area of a commercial activated carbon (AC) obtained from Norit was found to be 884.4 m2/g. The adsorption of chromium metal ion in aqueous solutions by activated carbon resorcinol formaldehyde xerogels (ACRF) was investigated. The experimental data show that pore structure, surface area and the adsorbent surface chemistry are important factors that control the adsorption of metal ions. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich and Sips models. Pseudo first order, pseudo second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available