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Title: Fruit and vegetables : assessing dietary intake, status and health benefits
Author: Fulton , Sharon Louise
Awarding Body: Queen's University Belfast
Current Institution: Queen's University Belfast
Date of Award: 2013
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Non-communicable diseases are a huge burden worldwide, with increased fruit and vegetable (FV) intake being associated with reduced risk. Although antioxidants are thought to be the beneficial components in FV, substitutions of less healthy foods may also occur when increased FV are consumed. A meta-analysis pooling data from published randomised intervention studies (RIS) where FV were increased showed micronutrients, fibre and carbohydrate intakes increased; whilst fat intakes potentially decreased. No significant difference was found in energy. An RIS of increased FV in a diabetic population confirmed these findings. However, 4 pooled FV studies revealed modest increases in energy when FV were increased, suggesting inconsistencies in energy; however this could be due to heterogeneity between studies. Furthermore when FV were increased, variety was also likely to increase. Whilst much interest has focused on general FV consumption, the health benefits of single fruit andlor vegetables may differ, and it is therefore of interest to examine the potential of individual foods and compounds contained within this food group. Apples are rich in polyphenols, particularly chlorogenic acid and epicatechin however a number of factors are likely to affect this polyphenol content including SUMMARY 2 - PAGE 3 storage or cooking. Analysis showed no effect of storage, cooking, or processing on polyphenol content but between-apple variability showed significant differences in golden and red delicious apples. Furthermore, epicatechin-rich apples in various forms were tested in participants at increased risk of CVD, to assess benefit on CVD risk factors such as oxid ised LDL and blood pressure. This pilot intervention showed no effect of epicatechin at a dose of 80mg/day on CVD risk. In conclusion , increased FV intake showed improvement in diet profile. Differences in storage, cooking and processing showed no effect on polyp he no I content in apples, however between-apple variability was observed. Finally epicatechin-rich apples and apple products showed no effect on risk factors for CVD.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available