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Title: Ionic liquids for applications in the detergent industry
Author: Devlin , Carolyn
Awarding Body: Queen's University Belfast
Current Institution: Queen's University Belfast
Date of Award: 2013
Availability of Full Text:
Full text unavailable from EThOS. Thesis embargoed until 31 May 2018
Bleach activators are used in combination with hydrogen peroxide in laundry detergents across the globe to improve the bleaching performance at lower wash temperatures. There are four main activators which are significant on the world market, all of which are solid at room temperature. In household detergents, the incorporation of bleach activators in liquid detergent products has been limited due to incompatibility with other components in solution. In this work, more than 30 novel ionic liquids derived from known and commercially available bleach activators were prepared. The bleach activators, which were available as sodium salts, underwent a facile metathesis reaction with chloride compounds in propanone to form the ionic liquids. Ionic liquids were formed using several different types and sizes of cation, with product physical states varying from liquid or gel to crystalline or waxy so lids. As expected from lattice energy theory, larger and unsymmetrical cations formed products with the lowest melting points, several of which were liquid at room temperature. All novel ionic liquid bleach activators were characterised by several techniques including NMR analysis, microanalysis and ES Mass spectroscopy. As this is the first time bleach activators have been incorporated in ionic liquids, it was unknown what affect this would have on the bleaching ability of the activators. Solution bleaching reactions using the dye Tropaeolin 0 were performed . The dye concentration of the solution was measured by electronic absorption spectroscopy over time. It was found that in most cases the ionic liquid did not have a negative impact on bleaching. One exception was pyridinium cations, the presence of which appeared to prevent the bleaching reaction from occurring at all. Cations which had surface-active properties were found to increase the bleaching rate.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available