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Title: Genetic control of fat partitioning in pigs
Author: Marriott, Duncan Thomas
Awarding Body: University of the West of England, Bristol
Current Institution: University of the West of England, Bristol
Date of Award: 2013
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Pork is one of the most consumed meats in the world. Healthiness of pork is largely determined by the amount and type of fat. It is known that the amount of fat and its distribution between muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SF) differs between breeds and individual animals within a breed, which implies genetic regulation of fat partitioning. The aim of this project was to investigate the molecular mechanisms regulating fat deposition in genetically diverse breeds and to identify DNA polymorphisms which might form the basis for the development of biomarkers for selective breeding towards desirable genotypes. An objective of the work presented here was to investigate whether breed-specific variations in fatty acid composition of muscle and SF are related to the breed-specific messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of key lipogenic enzymes. The enzymes investigated were acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) and delta-6-desaturase (~ 6 D ) which cata lyse the biosynthesis of saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) respectively. Significant between-breed differences in fatty acid composition were observed in SF of Large White x Pietrain (LWxP), Duroc x Pietrain (DxP) and Pielrain pigs. Sig nificant between-breed differences in fatty acid composition were also observed in muscle but not SF of Duroc 1 (D1), Duroc 1 x Duroc 2 (D1xD2, enhanced IMF), Duroc x Iberian (D1xl) and Large White x Landrace (LWxLr) pigs. A number of novel breed- and tissue-specific single nucleotide polymorph isms in the genes encoding for SeD, ~6D and ACC were identified in muscle and SF of pigs which differed in fatty acid compositions . Additionally, positive relationships were observed between n-6 PUFA content and 66D protein expression in SF of LWxP, DxP and Pietrain pigs, and between total MUFA and SCD mRNA expression in SF of D1 , D1xD2, Dxl and LWxLr pigs. An industrial placement undertaken as a part of this project identified the view of the Key Opinion Leaders regarding new and emerging approaches for modification of meat quality traits and increased public awareness about these approaches. Therefore, this resea rch has not only generated new knowledge, but also contributed to promoting science to the wider community and addressing the challenges of the international pig producing industry.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available