Use this URL to cite or link to this record in EThOS: http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.600694
Title: Effects of pipe orientation on sand transportation
Author: Osho, Adeyemi Joseph
Awarding Body: Cranfield University
Current Institution: Cranfield University
Date of Award: 2013
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Abstract:
Sand transport in hilly terrain geometry is different and complex to understand compared to horizontal pipeline, due to the influence of the geometry that greatly affect multiphase flow and sand behaviour at the dip. The overall aim of this research work is to use experimental method to investigate the effects of multiphase flow behaviour on sand transport in a dip configuration. Experimental work was carried out to understand the complex dynamic mechanisms that exist during sand multiphase flow using 2” inch dip test facility with different inclination angles of ±24° and ±12° configurations. In order determine the multiphase flow parameters and sand flow regimes, extensive data were collected and analysed from continuous local measurement of instantaneous liquid hold up and sand hold up using conductivity rings. Significant observations were made during this study from which several conclusions were made. In the air–water test, three slug behaviours were observed at the dip: complete stratified flow downhill with slug initiation at dip; stratified flow (with energetic ripple) downhill with slug initiation and slug growth upward dip; and aerated slug downhill and slug growth at the dip. These behaviours are different from published work on this subject with low angle of inclination. The data analysis revealed that the two types of slug initiation mechanisms (wave growth and wave coalescence) observed are geometry specifics. The slug translational velocities (at the dip and uphill section) were used as criterion to determine the flow condition for each slug initiation mechanism at the dip. Significant observations were made during this study from which several conclusions were made. In the air–water test, three slug behaviours were observed at the dip: complete stratified flow downhill with slug initiation at dip; stratified flow (with energetic ripple) downhill with slug initiation and slug growth upward dip; and aerated slug downhill and slug growth at the dip. These behaviours are different from published work on this subject with low angle of inclination. The data analysis revealed that the two types of slug initiation mechanisms (wave growth and wave coalescence) observed are geometry specifics. The slug translational velocities (at the dip and uphill section) were used as criterion to determine the flow condition for each slug initiation mechanism at the dip. Five sand-water flow regimes (full suspension, streak, saltation, sand dune, and sand bed) were established by physical observation and data analysis. It was also observed that sand streaks were denser towards the central line of pipe bottom in the downhill pipe than that in uphill pipe. At downhill pipe section, there were sand gathering toward the central line of the pipe bottom. The characteristics of sand transportation at the dip section were found slightly different from downhill and uphill pipe for higher sand concentrations. When dense streak occurred at the downhill, the sand particles become dispersed at the dip. The minimum transport conditions (MTC) were determined at different sand concentration. The sand minimum transport condition in the dip section was found to be slightly lower than those in the downhill and uphill section. The minimum transport condition for a single phase water flow for the 24˚ dip. test section was slightly higher (with difference of about 0.1m/s) than that of the 12˚ at the downward and upward of the dip section at low sand concentration. In addition, local sand measurements using conductivity time series results at the downhill and uphill section showed the influence of sand concentration and flow condition on sand flow patterns. The air-water-sand results showed that sand deposits occurred in uphill section after sand transport at the downhill and dip sections. This was due to different flow regimes exhibited at the different pipe sections. The stratified (wavy) flow was the dominant flow in downhill pipe; therefore sand was observed transporting within the liquid film as thin streak for most of test conditions. The slug initiation at the dip section was observed to be a major factor that influences the sand behaviour. Sand particles in the slug unit (at the dip and uphill of the pipe) were observed to be entrained in the slug body once slug is initiated, thereby changing the force vector generating turbulence flow at the front of slug body. Once the sand particles entered the film zone of the slug unit, they immediately stopped moving forward due to the film velocity significantly lower than the slug body coupled with gravity effect. . Sand particles were found to be falling back while travelling with the water film at some conditions, until they were picked up by the next slug body. The results of this work provide a better understanding to the study of multiphase flow for pipeline design and most especially sand behaviour at the dip. The sand dune regime is identified distinctively using conductivity ring technique which would assist in determining the operating conditions that allow sand dune formation. The knowledge of flow condition at full suspension of sand is an important parameter to determine the erosion rate over the life span of the pipeline. Also, the quantity of sand bed and flow condition of sand settling at the dip is useful information for production chemist in order to determine the effectiveness of corrosion inhibitor at the bottom of the pipe. In conclusion, sand transport characteristics and MTC were strongly dependent on the gas-liquid flow regime and pipe geometry; and cannot be generalised on the superficial liquid and gas velocities of the transport fluid.
Supervisor: Yeung, Hoi C. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID: uk.bl.ethos.600694  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Multiphase Flow ; Flow Regime ; Slug Mechanism ; Conductivity Ring
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