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Title: Arabic language processing for text classification : contributions to Arabic root extraction techniques, building an Arabic corpus, and to Arabic text classification techniques
Author: Al-Nashashibi, May Yacoub Adib
Awarding Body: University of Bradford
Current Institution: University of Bradford
Date of Award: 2012
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The impact and dynamics of Internet-based resources for Arabic-speaking users is increasing in significance, depth and breadth at highest pace than ever, and thus requires updated mechanisms for computational processing of Arabic texts. Arabic is a complex language and as such requires in depth investigation for analysis and improvement of available automatic processing techniques such as root extraction methods or text classification techniques, and for developing text collections that are already labeled, whether with single or multiple labels. This thesis proposes new ideas and methods to improve available automatic processing techniques for Arabic texts. Any automatic processing technique would require data in order to be used and critically reviewed and assessed, and here an attempt to develop a labeled Arabic corpus is also proposed. This thesis is composed of three parts: 1- Arabic corpus development, 2- proposing, improving and implementing root extraction techniques, and 3- proposing and investigating the effect of different pre-processing methods on single-labeled text classification methods for Arabic. This thesis first develops an Arabic corpus that is prepared to be used here for testing root extraction methods as well as single-label text classification techniques. It also enhances a rule-based root extraction method by handling irregular cases (that appear in about 34% of texts). It proposes and implements two expanded algorithms as well as an adjustment for a weight-based method. It also includes the algorithm that handles irregular cases to all and compares the performances of these proposed methods with original ones. This thesis thus develops a root extraction system that handles foreign Arabized words by constructing a list of about 7,000 foreign words. The outcome of the technique with best accuracy results in extracting the correct stem and root for respective words in texts, which is an enhanced rule-based method, is used in the third part of this thesis. This thesis finally proposes and implements a variant term frequency inverse document frequency weighting method, and investigates the effect of using different choices of features in document representation on single-label text classification performance (words, stems or roots as well as including to these choices their respective phrases). This thesis applies forty seven classifiers on all proposed representations and compares their performances. One challenge for researchers in Arabic text processing is that reported root extraction techniques in literature are either not accessible or require a long time to be reproduced while labeled benchmark Arabic text corpus is not fully available online. Also, by now few machine learning techniques were investigated on Arabic where usual preprocessing steps before classification were chosen. Such challenges are addressed in this thesis by developing a new labeled Arabic text corpus for extended applications of computational techniques. Results of investigated issues here show that proposing and implementing an algorithm that handles irregular words in Arabic did improve the performance of all implemented root extraction techniques. The performance of the algorithm that handles such irregular cases is evaluated in terms of accuracy improvement and execution time. Its efficiency is investigated with different document lengths and empirically is found to be linear in time for document lengths less than about 8,000. The rule-based technique is improved the highest among implemented root extraction methods when including the irregular cases handling algorithm. This thesis validates that choosing roots or stems instead of words in documents representations indeed improves single-label classification performance significantly for most used classifiers. However, the effect of extending such representations with their respective phrases on single-label text classification performance shows that it has no significant improvement. Many classifiers were not yet tested for Arabic such as the ripple-down rule classifier. The outcome of comparing the classifiers' performances concludes that the Bayesian network classifier performance is significantly the best in terms of accuracy, training time, and root mean square error values for all proposed and implemented representations.
Supervisor: Neagu, Daniel C.; Yaghi, Ali Sponsor: Petra University, Amman (Jordan)
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Arabic language ; Root extraction techniques ; Corpus development ; Text labeling ; Term weighting methods ; Document representation ; Single-label text classification ; Automatic language processing