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Title: Novel mechanisms of dendritic cell regulation by leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor B1
Author: Kalogeropoulos, Michail
ISNI:       0000 0004 5350 1853
Awarding Body: University of Aberdeen
Current Institution: University of Aberdeen
Date of Award: 2014
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Dendritic cells play an essential role in activating immune responses upon recognition of pathogens. This results in maturation and migration to the lymph nodes, where T cells are stimulated by upregulated antigen presentation, co-stimulation and cytokine secretion. DCs are also considered important in inhibiting inappropriate immune responses against self-peptides which could lead to the development of autoimmunity. This has been attributed to DCs that demonstrate inhibited co-stimulation and cytokine secretion. It has been previously shown that the continuous ligation of an immunomodulatory receptor, LILRB1, during DC differentiation results in such a DC population that demonstrates an immature phenotype even after exposure to bacterial components and resulted in inhibiting primary T cell responses. The mechanisms by which LILRB1-DCs promote tolerance are, therefore, here investigated. Previous studies revealed significantly altered expression for a large number of gene targets which varied from immune to cytoskeletal and bone-related functions. One of these includes DcR3, a soluble protein with a poorly defined role in immune regulation. It is here demonstrated that DcR3 has a positive role in the induction of IL-17, a cytokine implicated in autoimmunity. However, DcR3 was not secreted by LILRB1-DCs, possibly accounting for some of their tolerogenic functions. In addition, the expression of several cytoskeletal proteins was significantly changed in response to LILRB1 ligation and was associated with decreased ability for phagocytosis and migration. Lastly, it has been recently identified that DCs are able to trans-differentiate into osteoclasts, the main cell type linked with inflammatory bone disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis. It is here shown for the first time that ligation of LILRB1 inhibits this process and results in decreased bone resorption. Overall, these data provides evidence that ligation of LILRB1 on DCs affects normal inflammatory functions and suggests its potential for the development of new treatments against several autoimmune diseases.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Dendritic cells ; Cell receptors