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Title: Modulation of the PD-1 pathway by inhibitory antibody superagonists
Author: Akkaya, Billur
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2012
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In metozoans, most of the key events that lead to cell activation and inhibition are controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation. Extracellular signals are transmitted by membrane bound receptors, which have intrinsic kinase activity or themselves recruit intracellular kinases to specialised inhibitory or activating phosphorylation motifs. In this way, the pattern of kinase activation creates its own turnover and can rapidly generate amplified signals by positive feedback, or recruit inhibitory proteins to counteract the signals. This process of inhibition is also constitutive since it requires continuous counter-inhibition by phosphatases at the cell surface and intracellularly even in the absence of ligands. The absence of phosphatase activity results in unbridled protein phosphorylation and form this and other data it has been proposed that the triggering of the T cell receptor and other co-receptors may result simply by physical exclusion of the large phosphatases such as CD45 from the vicinity of the receptors. Superagonist monoclonal antibodies may work in a similar way, by binding receptors close to the plasma membrane and excluding extracellular phosphatases. The work described in this thesis seeks to discover if antibody superagonists can be generated against the T cell inhibitory cell surface receptor PD-1 and test if this approach can attenuate the immune response. Using in vitro assays of lymphocyte activation and a mouse model expressing human PD-1, this study characterises a series of anti-PD-1 antibodies and shows how patterns of inhibitory activity varying according to binding sites. The inhibitory effects of the anti-PD1 antibodies are seen in the humoral, cellular and transplant immune responses. Agonistic anti-PD1 antibodies induce regulatory T cells and may have role in suppression of autoimmune disease. The thesis suggests that superagonism may be harnessed clinically to dampen the immune response, through activation of inhibitory receptors.
Supervisor: Davis, Simon J. ; Cornall, Richard J. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: immune modulation ; inhibitory superagonist antibodies ; Immunology