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Title: Novel adenovirus vaccine vectors
Author: Dicks, Matthew Douglas James
Awarding Body: University of Oxford
Current Institution: University of Oxford
Date of Award: 2013
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Replication defective adenoviruses have emerged as promising vectors for delivery of vaccine antigens. The development of new vaccine vectors has recently focused on serotypes t, which the human population is less exposed in order to circumvent pre-existing anti vector immunity. This thesis describes the construction and optimisation of ChAdOX1, a new vector based on chimpanzee adenovirus Y2S, which has recently been manufactured to clinical grade for a Phase 1 human trial. Comparative immunogenicity studies between vectors of different serotype were performed in mice, with careful consideration of the infectious titer of vector preparations, since this parameter can confound studies based solely on viral particle estimation. Aft intramuscular administration, HAdV-S (Human adenovirus C) based vectors elicited superior transgene product specific T cell and antibody responses compared to a selection of chimpanzee adenovirus vectors (from Human adenovirus EJ including ChAdOX1. The construction of ChAdOXl in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BA C), enabled precise, and flexible modification of the genome by recombmation mediated genetic engineering. (recombmeering). Reverse genetics was performed to identify vector determinants of immunogenicity. Chimeric ChAdOXl vectors were created by replacement of native virus associated RNA (VA-RNA) and fiber sequences with the corresponding sequences from HAdV-5 Using these chimeric vectors, the importance of innate immunity and vector transduction in determining vector immunogenicity was investigated. Though the mechanisms responsible ultimately remain unclear, superior transgene product specific immune responses with HAdV-5 correlated with higher levels of transgene expression in vivo after vector administration. The current study has conclusively demonstrated that neither VA-RNA sequences, nor the fiber protein, are responsible for differences in immunogenicity between vectors, contrary to hypotheses based on previous studies.
Supervisor: Hill, Adrian V. S. : Gilbert, Sarah C. : Spencer, Alexandra J. : Cottingham, Matthew G. Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available
Keywords: Vaccinology : Viruses : Biology (medical sciences) : Viral vectors : adenovirus : vaccines