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Title: The use of linguistic context by children with autism
Author: Bell, Stuart James
Awarding Body: University of Cambridge
Current Institution: University of Cambridge
Date of Award: 2004
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Children with autism show an enhanced ability to disembed perceptual components from within meaningful surrounds (Shah and Frith, 1983; Happé, 1966). This is sometimes interpreted as being indicative of a reduced tendency to integrate information into a high-level, global representation (Frith, 1989; Happé, 1999b), and demonstrations of this have been shown in visual as well as linguistic tasks (Scheuffgen, 1998; Jolliffe and Baron-Cohen, 1999, 2000; Happé, in preparation). More recently, it has been suggested that children with autism are able to build high-level contextual representations, but show a bias to form local interpretations (Scott et al., submitted; Plaisted et al., 1999). In this dissertation, three novel studies are described, which probe children’s use of contextual information using techniques more commonly associated with other psychological fields of enquiry. I start by considering embedded words—words within words such as ‘cap’ in ‘captain’. By using a modified signal detection task, in which participants signalled the presence or absence of a target word, I found that children with autism did not find these embedded words any more salient than is typical. However, a general reduction in perceptual sensitivity was observed, which could lead to an overall difficulty of language comprehension. The second experiment used a word monitoring task to examine the use of semantic and syntactic context when recognising words in continuous speech. Whilst children with autism showed a similar pattern of benefit from semantic and syntactic context to their developmentally-typical peers, they exhibited an overall attenuation in this benefit, possibly explained by impaired information flow in an interactive speech recognition network. A manipulation of speech rate on this experiment was also explored. Finally, I designed a linguistic analogue to the visual embedded figures task, in which a target occurred in a meaningful sentence, but where the global interpretation did not assist its detection. Whilst a trend for children with autism to show superior performance on this task was not significant, a comparison to a variant where the global interpretation facilitated target detection affirmed that the children with autism made reduced use of linguistic context.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available