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Title: Do negative schema and beliefs about voice omnipotence and malevolence mediate the relationship between attachment style and distress from hearing voices?
Author: Cole, Esther
Awarding Body: University of Surrey
Current Institution: University of Surrey
Date of Award: 2012
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Objective: Research suggests an association between insecure adult attachment and distress from hearing voices. The current study hypothesised that four cognitive-affective factors might mediate this relationship: negative-self and negative-other schema (negative schema) and beliefs about voice omnipotence and malevolence (beliefs about voices). In a two-stage mediational model, it was hypothesised that negative schema mediate the relationship between attachment style and beliefs about voices; and that beliefs about voices mediate the relationship between negative schema and voice distress. Design and Analyses: The study adopted a quantitative, cross-sectional design. Mediational effects were tested using bootstrapped confidence intervals, which estimate the size of the indirect effect (Preacher & Hayes, 2008). Setting: 150 participants were recruited anonymously through mental health charity networks that support people who hear voices. Measures: The Experiences in Close Relationships Revised (ECRR), Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS), Beliefs about Voices Questionnaire – Revised (BAVQ-R) and the Hamilton Programme for Schizophrenia Voices Questionnaire (HPSVQ) were used. Participants also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale to control for confounding factors. Results: The results indicated that all hypotheses, in the two-stage mediational model, were supported. Negative schema emerged as indirect-only mediators of the relationship between attachment avoidance and voice malevolence. All cognitive-affective factors remained as mediators when controlling for the influence of negative affect and voice characteristics. Conclusions: This is the only study to demonstrate that, in spite of co-morbid anxiety and depression or the severity of voice characteristics, negative schema and beliefs about voices mediate the relationship between attachment style and voice distress. These findings support the use of therapeutic interventions that change the hearer’s relationship to voices or involve modifying, and decentring from, negative interpersonal schemata and distressing beliefs about voices.
Supervisor: Not available Sponsor: Not available
Qualification Name: Thesis (Ph.D.) Qualification Level: Doctoral
EThOS ID:  DOI: Not available