Title:

Extension of the eddy dissipation concept and laminar smoke point soot model to the large eddy simulation of fire dynamics

The original turbulent energy cascade of eddy dissipation concept (EDC) has been extended to the LES framework, assuming that there is always a structure level on which the typical length scale is equivalent to the filter width of large eddy simulation (LES). The velocity scale on this structure level could be calculated from the subgrid scale (SGS) kinetic energy, provided that this kinetic energy transport equation is solved in LES. All other quantities would thus be calculated on this structure level according to the general formulations from the original turbulent energy cascade. Based on this known structure level, the total kinetic energy and dissipation rate could be estimated with the integral length scale being assumed to be equivalent to the characteristic length of fire plume. Consequently, the Kolmogorov time scale and the integral time scale could also be calculated and then applied in the soot model development. The laminar based smoke point soot model (SPSM) is also extended to the LES framework. The filtered soot mass fraction transport equation is solved with the thermophoresis term neglected. The filtered soot formation rate is treated using the concept of partially stirred reactor (PaSR). This rate is thus associated with the laminar based soot formation rate substituted with the filtered properties through the expression of K. Note that in K the soot formation chemical time scale is assumed to be proportional to the laminar smoke point height (SPH) while its turbulent mixing time is supposed to be the. geometric mean of the Kolmogorov time scale and integral time scale. Furthermore, a new soot oxidation model is developed by imitating the gas phase combustion model, i.e. EDC, as the soot particles are assumed to be the solid phase of the fuel. Note that the turbulent mixing time scale for soot oxidation has been chosen to be the same as soot formation. The soot formation and oxidation models are coupled to treat the effect of soot on the fuel distribution and energy transport. The approaches to calculate flame height, radiative fraction, and surface emissive power (SEP) have also been developed for sooty flames. The models and approaches mentioned above are implemented into FireFOAM, which is a fully compressible solver based on the platform of OpenFOAM. A series of fire scenarios, involved with different fuels including methanol, methane, heptane and toluene, and with different scales ranging from 30 em to 56 m, are performed for validation studies. The detailed comparisons, such as mean velocity and its fluctuation, mean temperature and its fluctuation, soot volume fraction and its fluctuation, turbulent heat flux, time scales and length scales, flame height, radiative fraction, SEP and so on, between predictions and measurements demonstrate the capability of the current models.
